المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : لعبة المصطلحات الصحية


الصفحات : [1] 2 3

محمدالمبارك
08-02-2009, 10:46 PM
هلا اخواني تعالو نتسلي شوية بشي يعود
علينا بالفائدة
الفكرة ان كل عضوء يكتب مصطلح علمي خاص بي الصحة
يعني مجالات الصحة كلها والمصطلح يبدا بالحرف الذي انتهي
به العضوء الذي سبقه
ومع ذالك يكتب معني المصطلح او البحب يزيد يعرف لينا المصطلح
يكتب التعريف بتاعو
بسم الله نبداء
HEALTH
بمعني صحة
WHO definition of Health

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
يعني المصطلح الجائي يبداء بحرف H نهاية HEALTH

Hibat
08-02-2009, 10:54 PM
Hygiene

ومنها

Personal Hygiene

بمعني صحة شخصية


الحرف التالي

E

تحياتي
هبات

Dr. Nasir
08-03-2009, 01:28 AM
هلا اخواني تعالو نتسلي شوية بشي يعود
علينا بالفائدة
الفكرة ان كل عضوء يكتب مصطلح علمي خاص بي الصحة
يعني مجالات الصحة كلها والمصطلح يبدا بالحرف الذي انتهي
به العضوء الذي سبقه
ومع ذالك يكتب معني المصطلح او البحب يزيد يعرف لينا المصطلح
يكتب التعريف بتاعو


الفكرة حلوة وجميلة اخي محمد جوزيت خيرا
E
Egg

او البيض

يعتبر البيض من المواد الغذائية التى يسهل الحصول عليها اقتصاديا ويمكن تحضيرها بسهوله في المنزل ، وهي سهلة المضغ والإمتصاص ، حيث انها تحتوي على 13 نوع من الفيتامينات الاساسية والمعادن وتحتوي على كميه مناسبه من فيتامين (ب12) وفيتامين (د) وكذلك الفوليت .. وهي تحتوي كذلك على مادة الكولين وهي ماده غذائية اساسية تساعد على عمل الدماغ وهذه المادة تنتقل الى الجنين ويؤكد الباحثون ان هذه الماده تساعد على نمو الدماغ وتقوية الذاكرة.. اعلم اخي ان البيضه الواحده تحتوي على 200 ملغ من الكوليستيرول .....

انت تحتاج في اليوم الى 300 ملغ من الكوليستيرول فقط .. اذن انتبه لما تتناوله من الطعام ..

كما ان البيضة الواحدة تعطي في حدود 80 سعرة حرارية و بالتالي فإنها لا تؤثر على اي حمية غذائية
الحرف القادم G

omer abd elmajeed
08-03-2009, 08:20 AM
الفكرة حلوة وجميلة اخي محمد جوزيت خيرا
E
Egg

او البيض

يعتبر البيض من المواد الغذائية التى يسهل الحصول عليها اقتصاديا ويمكن تحضيرها بسهوله في المنزل ، وهي سهلة المضغ والإمتصاص ، حيث انها تحتوي على 13 نوع من الفيتامينات الاساسية والمعادن وتحتوي على كميه مناسبه من فيتامين (ب12) وفيتامين (د) وكذلك الفوليت .. وهي تحتوي كذلك على مادة الكولين وهي ماده غذائية اساسية تساعد على عمل الدماغ وهذه المادة تنتقل الى الجنين ويؤكد الباحثون ان هذه الماده تساعد على نمو الدماغ وتقوية الذاكرة.. اعلم اخي ان البيضه الواحده تحتوي على 200 ملغ من الكوليستيرول .....

انت تحتاج في اليوم الى 300 ملغ من الكوليستيرول فقط .. اذن انتبه لما تتناوله من الطعام ..

كما ان البيضة الواحدة تعطي في حدود 80 سعرة حرارية و بالتالي فإنها لا تؤثر على اي حمية غذائية
الحرف القادم G

مشكور ياود المبارك على الموضوع الشيق وهاكم دى
GMP) Good Manufacture Practices (ممارسات التصنيع الجيدة ) وهذة من الاجراءات التمهيدية لعملية الهاسب HACCP الحرف Pاو s

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-03-2009, 11:14 PM
مشكور ياود المبارك على الموضوع الشيق وهاكم دى
GMP) Good Manufacture Practices (ممارسات التصنيع الجيدة ) وهذة من الاجراءات التمهيدية لعملية الهاسب HACCP الحرف Pاو s

مشكورين جميعاً علي الروعة وحقوق الطبع محفوظة لو المبارك

ويا عمر والله ما نخذلك نأخد الحرفين

P
Pathogen: amicroorganism capable of causing disease
الكائن الحي الدقيق الذي له القدرة علي احداث المرض

S
Sampling:a procedure of selecting a part to repsent the whole amount.
in health aspects usually used for food and water sampling ,and collection of surveys and studies data
أخذ العينات: يقصد بها الطريقة التي تستخدم لاختيار جزء ليعبر عن الكل. وفي المجالات الصحية عادة يستخدم المصطلح لعينات الماء والطعام. ويستخدم لاختيار عينات الدراسات والمسوحات لجمع البيانات المطلوبة
الحرف التالي
G

omer abd elmajeed
08-04-2009, 09:01 AM
الاحتباس الحرارى Global warming
ما هي ظاهرة الإحتباس الحراري؟

ظاهرة الاحتباس الحراري: هي الارتفاع التدريجي في درجة حرارة الطبقة السفلى القريبة من سطح الأرض من الغلاف الجوي المحيط بالأرض. وسبب هذا الارتفاع هو زيادة انبعاث .green house gases الغازات الدفيئة أو غازات الصوبة الخضراء " ، وأهم هذه الغازات ، الميثان الذي يتكون من تفاعلات ميكروبية في حقول الأرز وتربية الحيوانات المجترة ومن حرق الكتلة الحيوية (الأشجار والنباتات ومخلفات الحيوانات)، كما ينتج من مياه المستنقعات الآسنة. وبالإضافة إلى الميثان هناك غاز أكسيد النيروز (يتكون أيضا من تفاعلات ميكروبية تحدث في المياه والتربة ) ومجموعة غازات الكلوروفلوروكربون (التي تتسبب في تآكل طبقة الأوزون ) وأخيرا غاز الأوزون الذي يتكون في طبقات الجو السفلي.



مفهوم العلماء للاحتباس الحراري

الاحتباس الحراري: هي ظاهرة ارتفاع درجة الحرارة في بيئة ما نتيجة تغيير في تدفق الطاقة الحرارية من البيئة و إليها. و عادة ما يطلق هذا الاسم على ظاهرة ارتفاع درجات حرارة الأرض في معدلها. و عن مسببات هذه الظاهرة على المستوى الأرضي أي عن سبب ظاهرة إرتفاع حرارة كوكب الأرض ينقسم العلماء إلا من يقول أن هذه الظاهرة طبيعية و أن مناخ الأرض يشهد طبيعيا فترات ساخنة و فترت باردة مستشهدين بذلك عن طريق فترة جليدية أو باردة نوعا ما بين القرن 17 و 18 في أوروبا، وفريق آخر يعزون تلك الظاهرة إلى تراكم غازات الدفيئة في الغلاف الجوي.

الحرف التالى G

Hibat
08-04-2009, 09:34 AM
G

Green Algae

وهي الطحالب الخضراء تحتوي على صبغة الكلوروفيل فقط ويخزن الغذاء على شكل نشا حقيقي في المراكز النشويه(بيرونويد). جدرها الخلويه مكونه من السليولوز وتعيش في المياه العذبة والمالحة. من أمثلتها: طحلب الإسبيروجيرا


الحرف التالي:


ُُE



تحياتي
هبات

omer abd elmajeed
08-04-2009, 09:40 AM
هلا ياهبات EPI
Expanded Program of Immunization
برامج التحصين الموسع
الحرف التالى
N

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-04-2009, 09:45 AM
G

Green Algae

وهي الطحالب الخضراء تحتوي على صبغة الكلوروفيل فقط ويخزن الغذاء على شكل نشا حقيقي في المراكز النشويه(بيرونويد). جدرها الخلويه مكونه من السليولوز وتعيش في المياه العذبة والمالحة. من أمثلتها: طحلب الإسبيروجيرا


الحرف التالي:


ُُE



تحياتي
هبات




E.coli


Escherecia coli]
الاشريكية القولونية: من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة البكترية التي تعيش بصورة طبيعية في القولون وهي من الكائنات الحية الممرضة وتعتبر من الميكروبات الدليلية علي التلوث بالفضلات البرازية
الحرف التالي E

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-04-2009, 09:55 AM
هلا ياهبات EPI
Expanded Program of Immunization
برامج التحصين الموسع
الحرف التالى
N
شكراً أبو عمير
Normal flora

لكل كائن حي بيئة يعيش ويتواجد فيها بصورة طبيعية وكما ذكرت سابقاً فالاشريكية القولونية تعيش بصورة طبيعية في القولون .

الحرف التالي A

omer abd elmajeed
08-04-2009, 12:24 PM
[

لكل كائن حي بيئة يعيش ويتواجد فيها بصورة طبيعية وكما ذكرت سابقاً فالاشريكية القولونية تعيش بصورة طبيعية في القولون .

الحرف التالي A[/QUOTE]
[B][COLOR="Magenta"]Magenta"][B] تشكر يا استاذ نصر
ADIS هو اختصار لا حرف الكلمات Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
الإيدز هو حالة يسببها فيروس يسمى فيروس نقص المناعة المكتسبة (HIV) وهو يقوم بالهجوم علي جهاز المناعة في الجسم والذي يعد بمثابة قوة الحراسة في الجسم والتي تهاجم أي إصابة أو فيروس.

لذلك عندما يهاجم الفيروس جهاز المناعة فإن جسم الإنسان يفقد هذه الحماية التي كان يتمتع بها وبالتالي يمكن إصابة الجسم بالعديد من الفيروسات والسرطانات بسهولة.

وهذه الإصابات تسمي إصابات انتهازية، لأنها تستغل فرصة إصابة جهاز المناعة بالضعف. لا يجوز لنا أن نقول أن شخص ما مات نتيجة مرض الإيدز، لأنه مات نتيجة الإصابة بأي فيروسات أو سرطانات نتيجة عدم عمل جهاز المناعة الذي يحمي الجسم وذلك نتيجة هجوم فيروس (HIV) علي جهاز المناعة.

* يمكنك دائماً تذكر ثلاثة أشياء:
- يمكن تجنب الإصابة بالإيدز.
- من الصعب الإصابة بالإيدز.
- هناك خطوات لتجنب الإصابة بالإيدز.

* من هم المعرضون للإصابة؟
هناك بعض الأشخاص معرضون للإصابة بالإيدز، مثل الشواذ جنسياً.
لا يختلف الإيدز من مكان لمكان، فهو موجود في كل الشعوب باختلاف الأجناس والأعمار.
ولكن هناك طرق مختلفة لمكافحة هذا المرض، فالوقاية ومكافحة حدوث المرض هو سلاحنا الوحيد حتى الآن.

* كيف ينتشر فيروس (HIV)؟
ينتشر هذا الفيروس عن طريق سوائل الجسم المختلفة:
الدم، السائل المنوي، الإفرازات المهبلية ولبن الأم.
أما بالنسبة (للعاب، الدموع والعرق) فلا يوجد دليل محدد أن الفيروس ينتشر عن طريقهم.
يدخل فيروس (HIV) جسم الإنسان عن طريق الأغشية المخاطية (جدار المستقيم، جدار المهبل أو المناطق الداخلية في الفم والحلق) أو من خلال الاتصال المباشر بالدم الملوث.
هذا الفيروس لا يستطيع اختراق الجلد، إلا في حالة وجود جرح في الجلد وحدوث احتكاك بدم شخص آخر ملوث.
ولا يمكن أيضاً انتشار الفيروس عن طريق الهواء من خلال العطس أو السعال.
لذلك لا يوجد خطورة في التعامل الطبيعي بين الشخص المصاب والأشخاص الآخرين.
* كيف تحدث الإصابة بفيروس (HIV)؟
هناك بعض الأشخاص يضعون أنفسهم في قائمة الأشخاص المعرضين للإصابة بالفيروس.
لذلك ما تفعله هو الذي يجعلك عرضة للإصابة أو لا.
* السلوك الذي يضعك في القائمة:
- الاتصال الجنسي مع شخص حامل للفيروس دون وجود حماية كافية.
الحماية هنا تعني دون استخدام واقي ذكري أيا كانت طريقة الاتصال أو اختلاف وضع الذكر والأنثى.
كل أشكال الاتصال الجنسي بدون حماية كافية تؤدي إلي انتشار الفيروس.
الاتصال الجنسي مع الشخص الحامل للفيروس هو أكثر الطرق التي تؤدي إلي انتشار المرض.
- استخدام الإبر بين الشخص المصاب وشخص آخر يؤدي إلي انتشار الفيروس، أو الأشخاص الذين يتناولون أي نوع من المخدرات عن طريق الإبر يمكن أن يحدث لهم إصابة عن طريق الاتصال الجنسي.
- أيضاً نقل الدم من الوسائل التي تنقل الفيروس، هناك طرق حديثة للكشف عن وجود الدم المصاب بالفيروس عن طريق الأشعة بدلا من أخذ عينة من الدم.
- أما الطريقة الأخيرة التي يمكن أن تصاب بالفيروس عن طريقها هي أن تولد به. حيث يمكن إصابة الطفل قبل أو بعد الولادة عن طريق الأم المصابة بالفيروس، أو عن طريق الرضاعة.
لا يمكن الإصابة بالفيروس عن طريق العلاقة العادية بين الأفراد، مثل اللمس أو استخدام المناديل الورقية أو التليفون، أو المشاركة في طعام واحد.
مشاركة الحياة مع مصابي الإيدز لا تؤدي إلي حدوث عدوى إلا في حالة الاتصال الجنسي أو استخدام إبر أو حقن مشتركة معهم
* أعراض الإصابة بفيروس (HIV):
حوالي من 50% إلي 90% من المصابين الجدد بفيروس (HIV) يشعرون بأعراض مشابهة لأعراض الأنفلونزا، تضخم في الغدة الدرقية أو طفح جلدي، حيث يقوم الجسم بمحاولة محاربة هجوم الفيروس عليه. هذه الأزمة الصحية الصغيرة يمكن أن تكون فرصة كبيرة لمحاولة منع الخلل الذي يحدث بعد ذلك في جهاز المناعة بالجسم.
الحرف التالى [SIZE="6"][COLOR="Magenta"]S]

Dr. Nasir
08-04-2009, 12:33 PM
شكراً أبو عمير
Normal flora

لكل كائن حي بيئة يعيش ويتواجد فيها بصورة طبيعية وكما ذكرت سابقاً فالاشريكية القولونية تعيش بصورة طبيعية في القولون .

الحرف التالي A


Aspects
ISO 14001 defines environmental aspect (http://www.sheilds-elearning.co.uk/mod/glossary/showentry.php?courseid=6&concept=ASPECT)s as elements of an organisation’s activities, products and services which can interact with the environment.
Environmental Aspect (http://www.sheilds-elearning.co.uk/mod/glossary/showentry.php?courseid=6&concept=ASPECT)s include the following
Emissions to air of particulates (smoke and dusts), carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, volatile organics, benzene, lead
.
Discharges to water of solvents, heavy metals, pesticides, organic matter, litter, oil, hazardous substances
.
Waste disposal with the generation of volume of contaminated solid and liquid waste (http://www.sheilds-elearning.co.uk/mod/glossary/showentry.php?courseid=6&concept=WASTE)s and the disposal of waste (http://www.sheilds-elearning.co.uk/mod/glossary/showentry.php?courseid=6&concept=WASTE)s that could be used as material inputs, hazardous waste (http://www.sheilds-elearning.co.uk/mod/glossary/showentry.php?courseid=6&concept=WASTE)s and radioactive wastes

الحرف الاخير هو S.

محمدالمبارك
08-04-2009, 12:44 PM
Anopheles mosquitos
بعوض الانوفلس وهو البعوض الناقل للملاريا
about 380 species of anopheles species occur around the world .some 60 species are sufficiently attracted to humans to act as vectors of malaria anumber of anopheles species are also vectors of filariasis and viral diseases.

الحرف القادم S
معليش يا جماعة بنيت علي اخر مشاركة في الصفحة الاول يشاركت بحف ال a بدلا من الs بتاع د.ناصر غلطة مطبعية

Hibat
08-04-2009, 12:49 PM
S

Sexual transmitted Infections (STIs)

مصطلح يقصد به الاصابات أو التفشيات المنقولة جنسيا ومن اثلتها الزهري والسيلان والايدز

الحرف التالي


S


تحياتي
هبات

omer abd elmajeed
08-04-2009, 01:04 PM
[QUOTE=Hibat;986]S

Sexual transmitted Infections (STIs)

مصطلح يقصد به الاصابات أو التفشيات المنقولة جنسيا ومن اثلتها الزهري والسيلان والايدز

الحرف التالي

sterilization
التعقيم هي العملية التي يتم فيها قتل جميع الكائنات الحية الدقيقة. فالتعقيم مرتبط بموت الكائنات الحية الدقيقة. لذلك يجب عدم استخدام تعبير معقم تقريبا أو معقم جزئيا حيث لا توجد حالة وسط فإما خالي من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة أو لا.
وسائل التعقيم الشائعة:
أ) الوسائل الفيزيائية
1- التعقيم بالبخار تحت الضغط. 2- التعقيم بالحرارة الجافة. 3- التعقيم بالإشعاع
ب) الوسائل الكيميائية
1- التعقيم بالبخار منخفض الحرارة مع الفورمالدهايد. 2- التعقيم بغاز أكسيد الإيثيلين. 3- التعقيم بالبلازما. 4- التعقيم باستخدام السوائل الكيميائية.
الحرف التالى N

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-04-2009, 01:13 PM
Safe food

Any food stuff that is free from any agent or substance that cause harm for human being


الغذاء الأمن:
يقصد به كل طعام خالي من أي مادة أو كائن حي يمكنه احداث الضرر الصحي للانسان

والكائنات الحية الضارة يقصد بها الكائنات الحية الممرضة والتي تجد طريقها للطعام من مصادر مختلفة

أي مادة يقصد بها الملوثات الكيميائية من عناصر ومركبات أو السموم التي تفرزها الكائنات الحية الدقيقة كنواتج استقلابية نتيجة تواجدها وتغذيتها علي الطعام

الحرف التالي D

Hibat
08-04-2009, 05:22 PM
safe food

any food stuff that is free from any agent or substance that cause harm for human being


الغذاء الأمن:
يقصد به كل طعام خالي من أي مادة أو كائن حي يمكنه احداث الضرر الصحي للانسان

والكائنات الحية الضارة يقصد بها الكائنات الحية الممرضة والتي تجد طريقها للطعام من مصادر مختلفة

أي مادة يقصد بها الملوثات الكيميائية من عناصر ومركبات أو السموم التي تفرزها الكائنات الحية الدقيقة كنواتج استقلابية نتيجة تواجدها وتغذيتها علي الطعام

الحرف التالي d

نصر الدين المشاركة السابقة من عمر ام عضام انتهت بحرف n وانت اجبت بحرف s ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-04-2009, 06:02 PM
Aflatoxins
Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are toxic and among the most carcinogenic substances known.[1] After entering the body, aflatoxins are metabolized by the liver to a reactive intermediate,& may cases liver cancer

S

ياسر محمد عثمان
08-04-2009, 10:22 PM
A
Acidity
بمعنى الحموضة وطبعا هنالك سته اشياء رئسيه توثر على نمو الاحياء الدقيه تختصر كالاتى
FAT TOM
F= FOOD
A =ACIDITY
T =TIME

T =TEMPREATURE
O =OXYGEN
M =MOISTURE

الحرف القادم
Y

Hibat
08-04-2009, 10:34 PM
الحرف القادم
Y

Y-peer Education
تعليم الاقران وهي تقنية بدات استخدامها حديثا من اجل مكافحة الامراض من خلال الاقران الشباب فيما بينهم لتقارب الفهم بينهم.

الحرف القادم

N

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-04-2009, 10:40 PM
A
Acidity
بمعنى الحموضة وطبعا هنالك سته اشياء رئسيه توثر على نمو الاحياء الدقيه تختصر كالاتى
FAT TOM
F= FOOD
A =ACIDITY
T =TIME

T =TEMPREATURE
O =OXYGEN
M =MOISTURE

الحرف القادم
Y

Yeast

الخمائر وهي كائنات حية قد تجد طريقها الي الغذاء وتحدث فيه تغيرات غير مرغوبة وغالباً ما تكون هذه التغيرات في الخواص الفيزيايئة مثل تغيرات اللون, وكذلك الخمائر تحدث تغيراً في الأس الهيدروجيني للأغذية . وتوجد حوالي تسعة مجموعات من الخمائر لها قدرة العيش في أغذيتنا. وعادة ما يتميز التلوث الخميري بالوجود علي أسطح الغذاء لأنها هوائية المعيشة و تكون أكثر من غيرها من الكائنات الأخري تلويثاً للأغذية الجافة نظراً لأنها يمكنها العيش في الأغذية ذات النشاط المائي المنخفض وكذلك لها قدرة العيش في الأغذية الحمضية
الحرف التالي T

omer abd elmajeed
08-05-2009, 09:57 AM
Yeast

الخمائر وهي كائنات حية قد تجد طريقها الي الغذاء وتحدث فيه تغيرات غير مرغوبة وغالباً ما تكون هذه التغيرات في الخواص الفيزيايئة مثل تغيرات اللون, وكذلك الخمائر تحدث تغيراً في الأس الهيدروجيني للأغذية . وتوجد حوالي تسعة مجموعات من الخمائر لها قدرة العيش في أغذيتنا. وعادة ما يتميز التلوث الخميري بالوجود علي أسطح الغذاء لأنها هوائية المعيشة و تكون أكثر من غيرها من الكائنات الأخري تلويثاً للأغذية الجافة نظراً لأنها يمكنها العيش في الأغذية ذات النشاط المائي المنخفض وكذلك لها قدرة العيش في الأغذية الحمضية
الحرف التالي T

Tuberculosis
هو مرض مزمن ينتج عن العدوى بجراثيم السل وقد يصيب هذا المرض مختلف أجزاء الجسم وهو يصيب بصورة رئيسية الرئتين. فهو يقتل 2 مليون إنسان كل سنة. إن الوباء العالمي يتنامى ويصبح أكثر خطورة. تعطل الخدمات الصحية ، انتشار الإيدز وظهور أنواع من جرثومة السل مقاومة للعديد من الأدوية عبارة عن عوامل تساهم في ازدياد التأثير السيئ لهذا المرض.
الحرف القادم
S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-05-2009, 09:58 AM
Tuberculosishttp://img196.imageshack.us/img196/8695/190pxtuberculosisxray1.jpg (http://img196.imageshack.us/i/190pxtuberculosisxray1.jpg/)

Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, in humans mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1]. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs (as pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the circulatory system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal system, bones, joints, and even the skin. Other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canetti, and Mycobacterium microti also cause tuberculosis, but these species are less common in humans.

The classic symptoms of tuberculosis are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. The diagnosis relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids. Tuberculosis treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. Contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in (extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine).

Tuberculosis is spread through the air, when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit. One–third of the world's current population has been infected with M. tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of one per second.[2] However, most of these cases will not develop the full-blown disease; asymptomatic, latent infection is most common. About one in ten of these latent infections will eventually progress to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half of its victims. The proportion of people in the general population who become sick with tuberculosis each year is stable or falling worldwide but, because of population growth, the absolute number of new cases is still increasing.[3] In 2004, mortality and morbidity statistics included 14.6 million chronic active cases, 8.9 million new cases, and 1.6 million deaths, mostly in developing countries.[2] In addition, a rising number of people in the developed world are contracting tuberculosis because their immune systems are compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or AIDS. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe with about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries testing positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5-10% of the US population test positive.[1] It is estimated that the US has 25,000 new cases of tuberculosis each year, 40% of which occur in immigrants from countries where tuberculosis is endemic.[1]

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-05-2009, 10:21 AM
Sodium Chloride
Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.
In humans, a high-salt intake has long been known to generally raise blood pressure, especially in certain individuals. More recently, it was demonstrated to attenuate nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.[3][4
E
]

محمدالمبارك
08-05-2009, 01:03 PM
ENTOMOLOGY
علم الحشرات
What is medical entomology?
Medical entomology is the study of insects, and related arthropods, that impact the health of people and our domesticated animals. Health threats generally come in the form of venom, delivered by sting or bite, and pathogens (disease causing organisms) transferred by a bite.

Bees, wasps, ants, and scorpions, sting in order to subdue prey and defend themselves. Spiders, some mites, some true bugs, flies, fleas, lice, mosquitoes, and ticks bite to feed. While feeding pathogens may be tranferred to the host animal.
الحرف التالي

y

omer abd elmajeed
08-05-2009, 02:14 PM
ENTOMOLOGY
علم الحشرات
What is medical entomology?
Medical entomology is the study of insects, and related arthropods, that impact the health of people and our domesticated animals. Health threats generally come in the form of venom, delivered by sting or bite, and pathogens (disease causing organisms) transferred by a bite.

Bees, wasps, ants, and scorpions, sting in order to subdue prey and defend themselves. Spiders, some mites, some true bugs, flies, fleas, lice, mosquitoes, and ticks bite to feed. While feeding pathogens may be tranferred to the host animal.
الحرف التالي

y


Yaws
infection that affects mainly the skin, bone and cartilage.
The disease occurs mainly in poor communities in warm, humid, tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
The causative organism is a bacterium called Treponema pertenue, a subspecies of Treponema pallidum that causes venereal syphilis. However, yaws is a non-venereal infection.
About 75% of people affected are children under 15 years of age (peak incidence occurs in children aged 6-10 years); males and females are affected and no race is exempt.
Yaws is transmitted mainly through direct skin contact with an infected person.
A single skin lesion develops at the point of entry of the bacterium after 2–4 weeks. Without treatment, multiple lesions appear all over the body.
Overcrowding, poor personal hygiene and poor sanitation facilitate the spread of the disease.
The disease is rarely fatal; however, it can lead to chronic disfigurement and disability.
Yaws can be treated with a single dose of a cheap and effective antibiotic: Benzathine Penicillin injection cures the disease

الحرف التالى S

Dr. Nasir
08-05-2009, 02:16 PM
YOGA
Yoga is a practical aid, not a religion. Yoga is an ancient art based on a harmonizing system of development for the body, mind, and spirit. The continued practice of yoga will lead you to a sense of peace and well-being, and also a feeling of being at one with their environment. This is a simple definition
The practice of yoga makes the body strong and flexible, it also improves the functioning of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and hormonal systems. Yoga brings about emotional stability and clarity of mind
اليوقا مذهب مستمد من الفلسفة الهندية يهدف الى السيطرة على الجسم والفكر عن طريق تدريبات خاصة للوصول الى الصحة السليمة وتحرير النفس .
الحرف القادم
A

Hibat
08-05-2009, 08:55 PM
A


Aquired Immuno Dificiency Syndrome

مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب الايدز

الحرف التالي

E

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-06-2009, 01:09 PM
A


Aquired Immuno Dificiency Syndrome

مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب الايدز

الحرف التالي

E

ُEnvironmental Impact Assessement (EIA):

تقييم المردود البيئي:
هو عملية دراسة وتقييم كل التأثيرات البيئية الايجابية والسلبية الناتجة عن قيام المشروعات , وهي عملية مستمرة يجب أن تسبق قيام المشروع في مراحل التخطيط وأثناء وبعد قيامه . وتهدف بشكل رئيس لتعزيز المردود الايجابي والتحكم في المردودات السالبة حتي لا تحدث أضراراً بيئية أو صحية علي الانسان

الحرف التالي T

محمدالمبارك
08-06-2009, 09:41 PM
toxicity
السمية



Pesticide Toxicity
The toxicity of a pesticide can be measured several ways, but generally human toxicity is estimated based on test results on rats and other animals. Toxicity studies are only guidelines. A pesticide that is poisonous to rats is not necessarily equally poisonous to people or other animals. Some pesticides are dangerous after one large dose (acute toxicity). Others can be dangerous after small, repeated doses (chronic toxicity).

Top
Measuring Acute Toxicity (LD50 And LC50 Values)
Acute toxicity of a pesticide refers to the effects from a single dose or repeated exposure over a short time (e.g. one day), such as an accident during mixing or applying pesticides. A pesticide with a high acute toxicity can be deadly even if a small amount is absorbed. Acute exposures may be referred to as acute dermal, acute oral or acute inhalation poisoning. Usually the effects of acute exposure, if any, occur within 24 hours.

LD50 or Lethal Dose 50
The LD50 is the dose of a pesticide that will kill half of a group of test animals from a single exposure by either the dermal, oral or inhalation routes. The larger an animal, the greater the lethal dose required to kill it. The LD50 is expressed in milligrams per kilogram of body weight of the test animal. For example, if a pesticide has an oral LD50 value of 10 mg/kg, and the test animals each weigh 1 kg, 50% of the animals would die of poisoning if each ate 10 mg of the pesticide. If the test animals weigh 25 kg each, the lethal dose to kill 50% of these animals would be 10 mg/kg X 25 kg = 250 mg each.

A pesticide with a lower LD50 is more toxic than a pesticide with a higher number because it takes less of the pesticide to kill half of the test animals. The smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the pesticide.


LC50 or Lethal Concentration 50
The LC50 value is a measure of the toxicity of a pesticide when test animals breathe air mixed with pesticide dust, vapours or spray mist. The LC50 is the concentration of pesticide which is lethal to 50% of a population of test animals and is usually determined for a specific exposure period (e.g. inhalation for 4 hours). The length of exposure is important because shorter exposure periods generally require higher pesticide concentrations to produce toxic effects. LC50 values for pesticides in air are expressed as the ratio of pesticide to air, in parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). LC50 values are also determined for fish and aquatic organisms based on the concentration of pesticide in water for exposure periods of 24 to 96 hours.

Important characteristics to note about LD50 and LC50 values:

they are based on a single dose (LD50) or short exposure (LC50);
they do not indicate cumulative effects of small doses;
they are an indicator of the amount of chemical required to kill or severely injure animals, and do not indicate the amount of chemical causing less severe toxic effects; and
the smaller the LD50 or LC50 value, the greater the toxicity (i.e. a pesticide with an LD50 of 5 mg/kg is 100 times more toxic than a pesticide with an LD50 of 500 mg/kg).
LD50 and LC50 values are determined from tests using the pure active ingredient of a pesticide. Formulated pesticides (the products on the store shelf) are generally less toxic than the active ingredient because they are diluted with other ingredients such as carriers. A pesticide further diluted with water in the spray tank would be even less toxic.

The acute oral LD50 value of a pesticide can be used to roughly estimate the amount of pesticide which might cause severe symptoms of acute poisoning to someone accidentally swallowing it.

Example: If an insecticide active ingredient has an acute oral LD50 to rats of 300 mg per kilogram of body weight, a 70 kg person would be severely poisoned if he consumed 70 kg X 300 mg/kg = 21,000 mg = 21 g of active ingredient.



If a formulated product contained 125 g/L active ingredient, a 70 kg person would be severely poisoned if he consumed (21 g) / (125 g/L)= 0.168 L = 168 mL of product.



If the product was mixed in a spray solution of 100 mL/10L of spray, then a person would be severely poisoned if he consumed (168 mL) / (10 ml/L) = 16.8 L of spray.

Research shows the susceptibility of mammals to pesticides varies with the species, age, sex and health of the animals being tested. Therefore data on the toxicity of pesticides to test animals can only serve as a guide to the probable toxicity of a pesticide to an individual person. When pesticides are registered, safety factors are included to account for the differences between species and between individuals.

As a general guide, the approximate dose which would cause severe injury or death to an average human adult is illustrated in the table below for various LD50 ranges.

Relation of oral LD50 to approximate lethal dose in adult humans.
Oral LD50 of Active Ingredient (a.i.) Approximate lethal dose to average size adult*
(70 kg or 155 lb.)
less than 5 mg/kg less than 0.3 mL
(one to two drops)
5 to 50 mg/kg 0.3 to 3 mL
(a few drops to half a teaspoon)
50 to 500 mg/kg 3 mL to 30 mL
(half a teaspoon to two tablespoons)
500 to 5,000 mg/kg 30 mL to 300 mL
(1 to 10 fluid ounces)
5,000 to 15,000 mg/kg 300 mL to 900 mL
(10 to 30 fluid ounces)
*Note that a larger amount of pesticide would have to be consumed to obtain a lethal dose if the active ingredient was diluted as in most formulated products and spray solutions. Note also that a child who is one-fifth the weight of an adult would require only one-fifth the amount of pesticide to suffer the same toxic effects as the adult.

On this basis, pesticides are classified into groups of low, moderate and high acute toxicity

Relative toxicity of pesticides to humans based on acute oral and dermal LD50's.
Acute Toxicity Oral LD50 Dermal LD50
High/Very less than 50 mg/kg less than 200 mg/kg
Moderate 50 to 500 mg/kg 200 to 1,000 mg/kg
Low/Slight over 500 mg/kg over 1,000 mg/kg

The more toxic the pesticide, the less needed to kill an animal. Therefore, very toxic pesticides have smaller LD50 values and slightly toxic pesticides have larger LD50 values.

Here are examples of LD50 values for four pesticides.

Pesticide Active Ingredient (a.i.) LD50 (mg/kg)
Oral Dermal
aldicarb 0.8 3
diazinon 300 2,150
malathion 1,000 4,100
atrazine 1,780 7,500

Here are examples of LD50 values for three common household compounds. They have a low acute toxicity but could cause toxic reactions if consumed in sufficient quantities.

Compound Oral LD50 (mg/kg)
acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) 1,000
sodium chloride (table salt) 3,320
ethylene glycol (antifreeze) 460

[SIZE="7"]y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-07-2009, 11:19 AM
Yersinia pestis
Y. pestis was discovered in 1894 by Alexandre Yersin, a Swiss/French physician and bacteriologist from the Pasteur Institute, during an epidemic of plague in Hong Kong.[2] Yersin was a member of the Pasteur school of thought
(formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacbelonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals.
terium Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.[1] All three forms have been responsible for high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (a bubonic plague) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.

Recently Y. pestis has gained attention as a possible biological warfare agent and the CDC has classified it as category A pathogen requiring preparation for a possible terrorist attack


Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative rod-shaped
bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals.

Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.[1] All three forms have been responsible for high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (a bubonic plague) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.

Recently Y. pestis has gained attention as a possible biological warfare agent and the CDC has classified it as category A pathogen requiring preparation for a possible terrorist attack

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-07-2009, 12:23 PM
Yersinia pestis
Y. pestis was discovered in 1894 by Alexandre Yersin, a Swiss/French physician and bacteriologist from the Pasteur Institute, during an epidemic of plague in Hong Kong.[2] Yersin was a member of the Pasteur school of thought
(formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacbelonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals.
terium Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.[1] All three forms have been responsible for high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (a bubonic plague) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.

Recently Y. pestis has gained attention as a possible biological warfare agent and the CDC has classified it as category A pathogen requiring preparation for a possible terrorist attack


Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative rod-shaped
bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals.

Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.[1] All three forms have been responsible for high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (a bubonic plague) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.

Recently Y. pestis has gained attention as a possible biological warfare agent and the CDC has classified it as category A pathogen requiring preparation for a possible terrorist attack



Surevalence

الاستقصاء :
هو عملية مستمرة لربط الأثر بالمسبب . ويستخدم في الخدمات الصحية للتحري عن الحالات المرضية واكتشاف أسبابها والعوامل المؤثرة في ذلك . ويتم الاستقصاء غالباً في مجموعات صغيرة . ومن أهم أمثلته برنامج استقصاء مرض شلل الأطفال الذي تسعي السلطات الصحية في السودان لإستئصاله واعلان السودان خالي من الشلل
الشئ الذي كان قاب قوسين أو أدني العام المنصرم لولا الحالة الوافدة من دول الجوار.


الحرف التالي E

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-07-2009, 02:03 PM
Essence
Food flavours
essence are substances used in manufacturing or preperation of food
it gives The food products flavouring .it is natural sub aroma or chemical
if it exceeds the permissible limit it will affect the health.
http://up4.m5zn.com/9bjndthcm6y53q1w0kvpz47xgs82rf/2009/8/7/03/ijuvrcw4h.jpg (http://games.m5zn.com)

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-07-2009, 09:54 PM
Emaciated animal or Emaciated carcass

الحيوانات أو الذبائح الموهنة (الضعيفة أو الهزيلة)

يقصد بها الحيوانات التي أصابها الهزال أو الضعف العام والذي ينتج غالباً عن اصابة الحيوان باحد الأمراض التي تؤدي الي نقص الوزن. ونقص الوزن الحاد في حيوانات الذبيح والذي يتجاوز أكثر من 10% من الوزن المتوسط للحيوانات في نفس العمر يعتبر علامة من العلامات التي تمنع ذبح الحيوان اذا ما أكتشف في التفتيش قبل الذبح.
قديؤدي اجهاد الحيوانات في النقل خصوصا اذا كان مسيرتها سيراً علي الأقدام للاصابة بنقص الوزن المؤقت الذي يزول باراحة الحيوان

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-07-2009, 11:28 PM
symptoms
Symptoms are many indications appear that aperson is infected with specific disease like fever, vomiting ,headache ....etc.









M

abdulsalam
08-08-2009, 12:24 AM
Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)
الشلل الرخوي الحاد

ياسر محمد عثمان
08-08-2009, 12:47 AM
Molds[/U
Molds produce tiny spores to reproduce. Mold spores waft through the indoor and outdoor air continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing and digesting whatever they are growing on in order to survive. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods. When excessive moisture or water accumulates indoors, mold growth will often occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or un-addressed. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture

[U]E

أرجو من الأخوة الزملاء مراعاة الصفحة التي بها آخر مشاركة وهي دائما تكون اسفل الموضوع الرئيسي

محمدالمبارك
08-08-2009, 01:20 PM
EFKS

Electronic fly killlers

work by attracting fliyng insect by means of long wavelength of U.V. (ULTRA VOILET)
light emitted by fluorescent tubes .such light is invisible to humans
tubes should be replaced at least once every 12 months.


التالي
S

Dr. Nasir
08-09-2009, 01:17 AM
EFKS

Electronic fly killlers

work by attracting fliyng insect by means of long wavelength of U.V. (ULTRA VOILET)
light emitted by fluorescent tubes .such light is invisible to humans
tubes should be replaced at least once every 12 months.


التالي
S
SPSS or Statistical Package for Social Analysis used for data analysis
الحزمة الاحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية تستخدم في التحليل
الحرف القادم S

omer abd elmajeed
08-09-2009, 10:20 AM
SPSS or Statistical Package for Social Analysis used for data analysis
الحزمة الاحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية تستخدم في التحليل
الحرف القادم S


STDs (Sexual Transmission Diseases )
الامراض المنقولة جنسيا ومنها الايدز والهربس والزهرى والسيلان....الخ

الحرف التالى
s

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-09-2009, 11:13 AM
Sanitary Filling

الطمر الصحي (الدفن الصحي):

هو واحد من طرق التخلص النهائي للفضلات ويستخدم عادة في الفضلات التي تتحلل في التربة مثل المخلفات العضوية ولا يحبذ استخدامه في المخلفات التي لها القدرة علي البقاء في البيئة

omer abd elmajeed
08-09-2009, 12:11 PM
Sanitary Filling

الطمر الصحي (الدفن الصحي):

هو واحد من طرق التخلص النهائي للفضلات ويستخدم عادة في الفضلات التي تتحلل في التربة مثل المخلفات العضوية ولا يحبذ استخدامه في المخلفات التي لها القدرة علي البقاء في البيئة
Gout
او النقرس مرض يصيب المفاصل نتيجة لارتفاع حمض البوليك فى الدم
الحرف التالى
T

محمدالمبارك
08-10-2009, 12:02 PM
TB
(Tuberculosis)
(tubercle bacillus )
السل
Tuberculosis (TB)
TB is a disease caused by germs called bacteria that most often affect the
lungs. You can be infected with TB when you breathe in the germs. You are
at a higher risk to get TB if you have a weak immune system. This system
can be weakened by poor diet, illness, medicines, or other causes.1
مرض الدرن (السل)
السل هو مرض تسببه الجراثيم المسماة بالبكتريا التي تؤثر في الغالب على الرئتين.
قد تصاب بالسل عند تنفس هذه الجراثيم. يزداد احتمال تعرضك للإصابة بالسل إذا آان
جهاز المناعة لديك ضعيفًا. يضعف جهاز المناعة بسبب النظام الغذائي السيئ أو المرض
أو الأدوية أو لأسباب أخرى.


الحرف التالي
S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-10-2009, 12:25 PM
tb
(tuberculosis)
(tubercle bacillus )
السل
tuberculosis (tb)
tb is a disease caused by germs called bacteria that most often affect the
lungs. You can be infected with tb when you breathe in the germs. You are
at a higher risk to get tb if you have a weak immune system. This system
can be weakened by poor diet, illness, medicines, or other causes.1
مرض الدرن (السل)
السل هو مرض تسببه الجراثيم المسماة بالبكتريا التي تؤثر في الغالب على الرئتين.
قد تصاب بالسل عند تنفس هذه الجراثيم. يزداد احتمال تعرضك للإصابة بالسل إذا آان
جهاز المناعة لديك ضعيفًا. يضعف جهاز المناعة بسبب النظام الغذائي السيئ أو المرض
أو الأدوية أو لأسباب أخرى.


الحرف التالي
s

الرجاء عدم تكرار المواضيع بإستعمال خاصية البحث لمعرفة إن كان الموضوع كتب فيه ام لا .

محمدالمبارك
08-10-2009, 01:35 PM
مشكور الاخ عبدالرحيم علي التنويه لم اكترث لذالك التكرار
نرجو ان يستفيد الاخرون من ملاحظة الاخ عبدالرحيم

وهاكم دي علي قول اخونا امعضام

Termites
النمل الابيض (الارضة)

Termites are small, white, tan, or black insects that can cause severe destruction to wooden structures. Termites belong to the insect order Isoptera, an ancient insect group that dates back more than 100 million years. The Latin name Isoptera means "equal wing"and refers to the fact that the front set of wings on a reproductive termite is similar in size and shape to the hind set

التالي

s

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
08-10-2009, 03:25 PM
Stunning

الصعق
وهو عملية تدويخ الحيوانات الكبيرة قبل الذبح . ويكون الصعق عادة في المنطقة العليا لرأس الحيوان في تقاطع منتصف طول المسافة بين أعلي نقطة في الراس والحاجب ومنتصف المسافة العرضية بين القرون.
يكون الصعق بوسائل متعددة مثل الألات الثقيلة العودية أو الحديدية ، الصعق الكهربي

الحرف التالي G

omer abd elmajeed
08-11-2009, 11:31 AM
Guinea worm
وهي دودة رفيعة وطويلة تعيش تحت الجلد وتخلق قروحاً مؤلمة على الركبة أو القدم أو أي مكان آخر في الجسم. وقد يبلغ طول الدودة التي تشبه خيطاً أبيض طويلاً أكثر من متر واحد. وتتواجد دودة غينيا في أجزاء من أفريقيا والهند والشرق الأوسط. واسمها العلمى Dracunculus medinensis
الحرف التالى
M

Hibat
08-11-2009, 01:31 PM
Midwife


القابلة ويطلق عليها أيضًا الداية والمولِّدة، هي امرأة ترعى النساء أثناء الحمل والولادة وما بعدهما أيضًا، فتساعد على إخراج المولود إلى الحياة، وتشرف على رعايته في الأسابيع الأربعة الأولى من حياته، ومعظم القابلات من النساء.

وتعد القبالة مهنة مستقلة عن الطب والتمريض، ولو أن الممرضات يمكن اعتبارهن مؤهلات للقبالة. وتحصل القابلة على ترخيص ممارسة المهنة بعد عدة سنوات من الدراسة.

تركز مسؤوليات القابلة على ثلاث مراحل من إنجاب الذرية: ما قبل الولادة، والولادة، وما بعد الولادة. ومنذ بداية عملية الحمل تحاول القابلة أن تطمئن على سلامة الأم والطفل معًا.

تتلخص رعاية ما قبل الولادة في مراقبة الحالة الجسمية للأم والاطمئنان على حدوث التطور الطبيعي للرحم، كما تعمل القابلة على تحديد المخاطر المحتملة على سلامة الأم والطفل. ويجب أن تعرف القابلة أيضًا متى ينبغي استشارة الطبيب وترشد الأم إلى كيفية الاعتناء بنفسها قبل الولادة.

حين يكتمل الجنين وتتهيأ الأم للولادة، تساعد القابلة في عملية الوضع، سواء أكانت الولادة في منزل الأم أم في إحدى الوحدات المحلية لرعاية الأمومة، وتبدأ مراقبة الأم والمولود بعد الولادة، كما تتيح الزيارات التي تقوم بها القابلة لمنزل الأم في الأسابيع التالية للولادة متابعة تقدم الأسرة وأحوالها.

ويتباين الدور الذي تقوم به القابلة من بلد إلى آخر؛ ففي معظم البلدان الإسكندينافية مثلاً، تقوم القابلات برعاية الأمهات، في حين توكل هذه المهمة إلى الأطباء دون غيرهم في أمريكا الشمالية.

وتؤدي القابلات دورًا مهمًا في الصحة العامة في معظم البلدان النامية. فهن يقمن بتوعية الأمهات بفوائد المياه النظيفة والتدبير الجيد والتغذية، كما يضطلعن ببرامج التطعيم وإدارة مراكز تنظيم الأسرة..
الحرف التالي:
E

تحياتي
هبات

abdelrhman ahmed galal
08-11-2009, 09:46 PM
Epilepsy الصرع

مرض الصرع هو من الامراض التي يصاب بها الانسان والعديد من الناس لايعرفون اسبابه والمعالجة منه. ارجو شاكرا من كانت له معلومات علمية نشرها لمزيد من المعرفة.
الحرف التالي هو Y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-11-2009, 11:39 PM
More information about Epilepsy go to this site
http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy (http://http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy)

http://www.up-00.com/mqfiles/RsA20471.png (http://www.up-00.com/)
YELLOW FEVER
Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus
It is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes (the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and other species). Yellow fever is an important cause of hemorrhagic illness in many African and South American countries despite existence of an effective vaccine. The yellow refers to the jaundice symptoms that affect some patientS
Pathogenesis

Endemic range of yellow fever in Africa (2005)
Endemic range of yellow fever in South America (2005)Human infection begins after deposition of viral particles through the skin in infected arthropod saliva, hence it is considered an arbovirus. The mosquitoes involved are Aedes simpsaloni, A. africanus, and A. aegypti in Africa, the Haemagogus genus in South America,[9] and the Sabethes genus in France.

Yellow fever is frequently severe but moderate cases may occur as the result of previous infection by another flavivirus. After infection the virus first replicates locally, followed by transportation to the rest of the body via the lymphatic system.[11] Following systemic lymphatic infection the virus proceeds to establish itself throughout organ systems, including the heart, kidneys, adrenal glands, and the parenchyma of the liver; high viral loads are also present in the blood.[2] Necrotic masses (Councilman bodies) appear in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes.[11][12]

There is a difference between disease outbreaks in rural or forest areas ("jungle cycle") and in towns ("urban cycle").[13] Disease outbreaks in towns and non-native people may be more serious because of higher densities of mosquito vectors and higher population densities

abdelrhman ahmed galal
08-11-2009, 11:55 PM
Rehabilitation اعادة التأهيل
وهى الإجراءات التى تتخذ بعد العلاج وثبوت الحاله التشخيصيه مثل فقد أحد الأعضاء (الأطراف) نتيجة لوقوع حادث أوفقد البصر لإصابة العين بالرمد الصديدى.
تهدف للوقايه من المضاعفات الإجتماعيه من تشرد وتسول وذلك برعاية العاجز طبياً وصحياً ونفسياً ومهنياً حتى يتمكن من الاعتماد على نفسه.




اود ان اشكرك اخي عبدالرحيم الاستجابة الفورية عن مرض الصرع

Dr. Nasir
08-12-2009, 12:44 AM
Rehabilitation اعادة التأهيل
وهى الإجراءات التى تتخذ بعد العلاج وثبوت الحاله التشخيصيه مثل فقد أحد الأعضاء (الأطراف) نتيجة لوقوع حادث أوفقد البصر لإصابة العين بالرمد الصديدى.
تهدف للوقايه من المضاعفات الإجتماعيه من تشرد وتسول وذلك برعاية العاجز طبياً وصحياً ونفسياً ومهنياً حتى يتمكن من الاعتماد على نفسه.




اود ان اشكرك اخي عبدالرحيم الاستجابة الفورية عن مرض الصرع

Nomophobia
Its A new terminology defined by Psychologist which is abnoraml psychological condition appears after the discover of mobile phone , its abbreviation for No Mobile Phobia.
It occurs when any one forget his / her mobile in home and this tpye of symptoms or phobia present until he / she return back to home

comming leter is A

Hibat
08-12-2009, 12:02 PM
Antiretroviral

مضادات فيروسات النسخ العكسي

are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. When several such drugs, typically three or four, are taken in combination, the approach is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART. The American National Institutes of Health and other organizations recommend offering antiretroviral treatment to all patients with AIDS. Because of the complexity of selecting and following a regimen, the severity of the side effects and the importance of compliance to prevent viral resistance, however, such organizations emphasize the importance of involving patients in therapy choices and recommend analyzing the risks and the potential benefits to patients without symptoms.[1]
There are different classes of antiretroviral drugs that act at different stages of the HIV life cycle.


الحرف التالي:
L



تحياتي
هبات

محمدالمبارك
08-12-2009, 01:10 PM
lymphatic filariasis
الفيلاريا الليمفاوية

lymphatic filariasis is caused by three species of parasitic worm
occur in the lymph vessels & may cause hunge swelling of the limbs
& other parts of the body .
although the disease causes much suffering & disability it is rarely
life-threaening.
التالي
s

abdelrhman ahmed galal
08-12-2009, 01:47 PM
surveillance
Is the collection, analysis, interpretation and dissmenationof information about selected health events..







أبوبرأءه

Dr. Nasir
08-13-2009, 02:06 PM
Vitamin E is found naturally in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. "Vitamin E" is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds with distinctive antioxidant activities
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Scientists are investigating whether, by limiting free-radical production and possibly through other mechanisms, vitamin E might help prevent or delay the chronic diseases associated with free radicals.
Numerous foods provide vitamin E. Nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils are among the best sources of alpha-tocopherol, and significant amounts are available in green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals
Vitamin E Deficiency
Frank vitamin E deficiency is rare and overt deficiency symptoms have not been found in healthy people who obtain little vitamin E from their diets [6 (http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE.asp#en6)]. Premature babies of very low birth weight (<1,500 grams) might be deficient in vitamin E. Vitamin E supplementation in these infants might reduce the risk of some complications, such as those affecting the retina, but they can also increase the risk of infections
Vitamin E and Health
Many claims have been made about vitamin E’s potential to promote health and prevent and treat disease. The mechanisms by which vitamin E might provide this protection include its function as an antioxidant and its roles in anti-inflammatory processes, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and immune enhancement
Also E.

محمدالمبارك
08-13-2009, 02:12 PM
Eradication[/SIZE
استئصال

[SIZE="5"]Referring to disease, the termination of all transmission of infection by extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment; global eradication has been achieved for smallpox, regional eradication for malaria and perhaps in some places for measles.

التالي

N

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-13-2009, 08:09 PM
Nematode

Nematode infections in humans include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and trichinosis, among others. The phylum Nematoda, also known as the roundworms, is the second largest phylum in the animal kingdom, encompassing up to 500,000 species. Members of Nematoda are elongated, with bilaterally symmetric bodies that contain an intestinal system and a large body cavity.

محمدالمبارك
08-15-2009, 01:17 PM
EDWIP
Ecological Database of the
World's Insect Pathogens

http://cricket.inhs.uiuc.edu/edwipweb/edwipabout.htm
لمزيد من المعلومات انسخ الرابط اعلاه
التالي
s or p

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-17-2009, 12:36 PM
Pestcide
any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances which may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies. The term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant or agent for thining fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit, and substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport.

There are multiple ways of classifying pesticides.

Algicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algicide) or algaecides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaecide) for the control of algae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae)
Avicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicide) for the control of birds (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird)
Bactericides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bactericide) for the control of bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria)


Fungicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungicide) for the control of fungi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus) and oomycetes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oomycete)
Herbicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbicide) (e.g. glyphosate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyphosate)) for the control of weeds
Insecticides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecticide) (e.g. organochlorines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organochlorine), organophosphates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organophosphate), carbamates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbamate), and pyrethroids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrethroid)) for the control of insects (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect) - these can be ovicides (substances that kill eggs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_(biology))), larvicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larvicide) (substances that kill larvae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larva)) or adulticides (substances that kill adults)
Miticides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miticide) or acaricides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acaricide) for the control of mites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mite)
Molluscicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molluscicide) for the control of slugs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slug) and snails (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snail)
Nematicides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nematicide) for the control of nematodes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nematode)
Rodenticides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodenticide) for the control of rodents (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodent)
Virucides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virucide) for the control of viruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus) (e.g. H5N1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H5N1))
E

Dr. Nasir
08-19-2009, 08:49 AM
Earthquake
An earthquake (also known as a tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth) crust (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crust_(geology)) that creates seismic waves (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seismic_wave). Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seismometer), also known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_magnitude_scale) of an earthquake is conventionally reported, or the related and mostly obsolete Richter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richter_magnitude_scale) magnitude, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/imperceptible) and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercalli_intensity_scale).
At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicenter) is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami). The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity.
In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether a natural phenomenon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomenon) or an event caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fault_(geology)), but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Focus_(earthquake)) or hypocenter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypocenter). The term epicenter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicenter) refers to the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.
E

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-19-2009, 01:23 PM
Environmental Science
the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment

E

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-22-2009, 05:45 PM
yeast
Yeasts are eukaryotic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Eukaryote) micro-organisms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Micro-organism) classified in the kingdom (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Kingdom_(biology)) Fungi (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fungus), with about 1,500 species (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Species) currently described;[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-YeastRef1-0) they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1) Most reproduce asexually (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Asexual_reproduction) by budding (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Budding), although a few do so by binary fission (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Binary_fission). Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hypha), or false hyphae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hypha) as seen in most molds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mold).[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kurtzman1-2) Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Micrometre) in diameter (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diameter), although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Walker-3)
The yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae) has been used in baking (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Baking) and fermenting (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fermentation_(food)) alcoholic beverages (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Alcoholic_beverages) for thousands of years. It is also extremely important as a model organism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Model_organism) in modern cell biology (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cell_biology) research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Eukaryotic) microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology.[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Ostergaard-4) Other species of yeast, such as Candida albicans (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Candida_albicans), are opportunistic pathogens (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Opportunistic_pathogen) and can cause infections (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Yeast_infection) in humans. Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell),[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-YeastRef3-5) and produce ethanol for the biofuel (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biofuel) industry.
Yeasts do not form a specific taxonomic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Taxonomy) or phylogenetic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Phylogenetics) grouping. At present it is estimated that only 1% of all yeast species have been described.[7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kurtzman2-6) The term "yeast" is often taken as a synonym (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Synonym) for S. cerevisiae,[8] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kurtzman-7) but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in both divisions (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Division_(biology)) Ascomycota (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ascomycota) and Basidiomycota (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Basidiomycota). The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Order_(biology)) Saccharomycetales (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Saccharomycetales).[9] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-YeastRef2-8)

T

omer abd elmajeed
08-27-2009, 12:35 AM
yeast
Yeasts are eukaryotic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Eukaryote) micro-organisms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Micro-organism) classified in the kingdom (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Kingdom_(biology)) Fungi (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fungus), with about 1,500 species (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Species) currently described;[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-YeastRef1-0) they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1) Most reproduce asexually (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Asexual_reproduction) by budding (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Budding), although a few do so by binary fission (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Binary_fission). Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hypha), or false hyphae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hypha) as seen in most molds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mold).[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kurtzman1-2) Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Micrometre) in diameter (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diameter), although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Walker-3)
The yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae) has been used in baking (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Baking) and fermenting (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fermentation_(food)) alcoholic beverages (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Alcoholic_beverages) for thousands of years. It is also extremely important as a model organism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Model_organism) in modern cell biology (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cell_biology) research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Eukaryotic) microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology.[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Ostergaard-4) Other species of yeast, such as Candida albicans (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Candida_albicans), are opportunistic pathogens (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Opportunistic_pathogen) and can cause infections (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Yeast_infection) in humans. Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell),[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-YeastRef3-5) and produce ethanol for the biofuel (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biofuel) industry.
Yeasts do not form a specific taxonomic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Taxonomy) or phylogenetic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Phylogenetics) grouping. At present it is estimated that only 1% of all yeast species have been described.[7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kurtzman2-6) The term "yeast" is often taken as a synonym (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Synonym) for S. cerevisiae,[8] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kurtzman-7) but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in both divisions (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Division_(biology)) Ascomycota (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ascomycota) and Basidiomycota (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Basidiomycota). The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Order_(biology)) Saccharomycetales (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Saccharomycetales).[9] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-YeastRef2-8)

T
عبد الرحيم شكلك كدة قاعد تلخبط اخر مشاركة كان اخرها E من كلمة science وقمت جبت yeast من وييييييييييييييييييين على العموم نقول T
Taenia Soluim
وهى احدى انواع الديدان الشريطية وتنتقل بواسطة لحوم الخنزير
الحرف القادم
M

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-27-2009, 11:30 AM
http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p1c9e2d2f42.jpg (http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p1c9e2d2f42.jpg)
Milk
Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mammary_gland) of mammals (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mammal). It provides the primary source of nutrition (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nutrition) for young mammals before they are able to digest (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Digestion) other types of food. The early lactation (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactation) milk is known as colostrum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Colostrum), and carries the mother's antibodies (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Antibody) to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. The exact components of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Saturated_fat), protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Protein) and calcium (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Calcium) as well as vitamin C (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vitamin_C). Cow's milk has a pH (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/PH) ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Acidity).[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1)
Food product for humans

In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. For millennia, cow's milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cream), butter (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Butter), yogurt (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Yogurt), kefir (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Kefir), ice cream (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ice_cream), and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cheese). Industrial science has brought us casein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Casein), whey protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Whey_protein), lactose (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactose), condensed milk (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Condensed_milk), powdered milk (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Powdered_milk), and many other food-additive and industrial products.
Humans are an exception in the natural world for consuming milk past infancy, despite the fact that more than 75% of adult humans are lactose intolerant (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactose_intolerant), a characteristic that is more prevalent among individuals of African or Asian descent.[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Biochemistry-3) The sugar lactose (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactose) is found only in milk, forsythia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Forsythia) flowers, and a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactase), reaches its highest levels in the small intestines after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. [5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-On_Food_and_Cooking-4) On the other hand, those groups that do continue to tolerate milk often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Domestication) ungulates (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ungulates), not only of cows (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cow), but also sheep (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sheep), goats (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Goat), yaks (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Yak), water buffalo (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Domestic_buffalo), horses (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Horse), and camels (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Camel). The largest producer and consumer of cow's milk in the world is
K

Dr. Nasir
08-27-2009, 06:23 PM
KAPB Model
Its one of famous health education model used for discuss the theory of behaviour change
K for Knowldge
A for attiudes
P practice
B for behaviour

next B

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-28-2009, 03:38 PM
BLOOD
[/URL]
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid (http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p0652cbf018.jpg) that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)) — such as nutrients and oxygen — and transports waste (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste) products away from those same cells.
In vertebrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebrate), it is composed of blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_cells) suspended in a liquid called blood plasma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_plasma). Plasma, which comprises 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (90% by volume),[U][1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood#cite_note-0) and contains dissolved proteins, glucose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose), mineral ions, hormones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone), carbon dioxide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide) (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), platelets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelets) and blood cells themselves. The blood cells present in blood are mainly red blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cell) (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell), including leukocytes and platelets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cells). These contain hemoglobin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin), an iron (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron)-containing protein, which facilitates transportation of oxygen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen) by reversibly binding to this respiratory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breath) gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellularly dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicarbonate) ion.
Vertebrate blood is bright-red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated. Some animals, such as crustaceans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crustacean) and mollusks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mollusk), use hemocyanin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemocyanin) to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Insects (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect) and some molluscs use a fluid called hemolymph (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemolymph) instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulatory_system). In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invertebrate_trachea) to suffice for supplying oxygen.
Jawed vertebrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnathostomata) have an adaptive immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_immune_system), based largely on white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell). White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. Platelets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet) are important in the clotting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coagulation) of blood.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood#cite_note-1) Arthropods (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod), using hemolymph, have hemocytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemocyte) as part of their immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system).
Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessel) by the pumping action of the heart (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart). In animals having lungs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung), arterial (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artery) blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vein) blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolism) produced by cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)), from the tissues to the lungs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung) to be exhaled.
Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (also spelled (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_and_British_English_spelling_differences# Simplification_of_ae_.28.C3.A6.29_and_oe_.28.C5.93 .29) haemo- and haemato-) from the Ancient Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek) word αἷμα (haima) for "blood". In terms of anatomy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy) and histology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histology), blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connective_tissue), given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrinogen).

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
08-31-2009, 02:35 PM
Dehydration

Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water) ) from an object. Medically, it is a condition in which the body contains an insufficient volume of water for normal functioning.
Symptoms and prognosis

Symptoms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symptom) may include headaches (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache) similar to what is experienced during a hangover (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hangover), muscle cramps, a sudden episode of visual snow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_snow), decreased blood pressure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_pressure) (hypotension (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypotension)), and dizziness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dizziness) or fainting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fainting) when standing up due to orthostatic hypotension (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthostatic_hypotension). Untreated dehydration generally results in delirium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delirium), unconsciousness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconsciousness), swelling of the tongue[1] (http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20061109213902AATOqs3) and in extreme cases death (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death).
Dehydration symptoms generally become noticeable after 2% of one's normal water volume has been lost. Initially, one experiences thirst (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirst) and discomfort, possibly along with loss of appetite (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appetite) and dry skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_skin). This can be followed by constipation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constipation). Athletes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sportsperson) may suffer a loss of performance of up to 30%[2] (http://www.bing.com/health/article.aspx?id=articles%2fwp%2fpages%2fd%2fe%2fh% 2fDehydration.html&br=lv&q=dehydration#_note-1), and experience flushing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flushing_%28physiology%29), low endurance, rapid heart rates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_rate), elevated body temperatures, and rapid onset of fatigue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_%28physical%29).
Symptoms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symptom) of mild dehydration include thirst (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirst), decreased urine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine) volume, abnormally dark urine, unexplained tiredness, lack of tears when crying, headache (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache), dry mouth, dizziness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dizziness) when standing due to orthostatic hypotension (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthostatic_hypotension), and in some cases can cause insomnia.
In moderate to severe dehydration, there may be no urine output at all. Other symptoms in these states include lethargy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lethargy) or extreme sleepiness, seizures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seizure), sunken fontanel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontanel) (soft spot) in infants, fainting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fainting), and sunken eyes.
The symptoms become increasingly severe with greater water loss. One's heart and respiration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiration_%28physiology%29) rates begin to increase to compensate for decreased plasma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_plasma) volume and blood pressure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_pressure), while body temperature may rise because of decreased sweating. Around 5% to 6% water loss, one may become groggy or sleepy, experience headaches or nausea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea), and may feel tingling in one's limbs (paresthesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paresthesia)). With 10% to 15% fluid loss, muscles may become spastic, skin may shrivel and wrinkle, vision may dim, urination will be greatly reduced and may become painful, and delirium may begin. Losses greater than 15% are usually fatal. [3] (http://www.bing.com/health/article.aspx?id=articles%2fwp%2fpages%2fd%2fe%2fh% 2fDehydration.html&br=lv&q=dehydration#_note-2)
For adults over age 50, the body’s thirst (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirst) sensation diminishes and continues diminishing with age. Many senior citizens suffer symptoms of dehydration. Dehydration along with hyperthermia results in seniors dying during extreme hot weather.
Treatment

http://www.bing.com/health/static/articles%2fwp%2fimages%2fa%2fad%2f250px-Cholera_rehydration_nurses.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cholera_rehydration_nurses.jpg) http://www.bing.com/health/static/articles%2fwp%2fimages%2fmagnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cholera_rehydration_nurses.jpg)
Nurses encouraging this patient to drink an Oral Rehydration Solution to improve dehydration he acquired from cholera (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera).


The best treatment for minor dehydration is drinking water and stopping fluid loss. Water is preferable to sport drinks and other commercially-sold rehydration fluids, as the balance of electrolytes they provide may not match the replacement requirements of the individual. To stop fluid loss from vomiting and diarrhea, avoid solid foods and drink only clear liquids.[4] (http://www.bing.com/health/article.aspx?id=articles%2fwp%2fpages%2fd%2fe%2fh% 2fDehydration.html&br=lv&q=dehydration#_note-3)
In more severe cases, correction of a dehydrated state is accomplished by the replenishment of necessary water and electrolytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolyte) (rehydration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rehydration), through oral rehydration therapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_rehydration_therapy) or intravenous therapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous_therapy)). Even in the case of serious lack of fresh water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresh_water) (e.g., at sea or in a desert), drinking seawater (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seawater) or urine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine) does not help, nor does the consumption of alcohol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol). It is often thought that the sudden influx of salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt) into the body from seawater will cause the cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_%28biology%29) to dehydrate and the kidneys (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney) to overload and shut down but it has been calculated that an average adult can drink up to 0.2 liters of seawater per day before the kidneys start to fail.
When dehydrated, unnecessary sweating (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweating) should be avoided, as it wastes water. If there is only dry food, it is better not to eat, as water is necessary for digestion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestion). For severe cases of dehydration where fainting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fainting), unconsciousness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconsciousness), or other severely inhibiting symptom is present (the patient is incapable of standing or thinking clearly), emergency attention is required. Fluids containing a proper balance of replacement electrolytes are given orally or intravenously with continuing assessment of electrolyte status; complete resolution is the norm in all but the most extreme cases.
N

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-02-2009, 05:44 PM
Neisseria meningitidis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Neisseria meningitidishttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Neisseria_meningitidis_%28cropped%29.png (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Neisseria_meningitidis_(cropped).png)
Photomicrograph (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Micrograph) of N. meningitidis
Scientific classification (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Bacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacterium)
Phylum:Proteobacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Proteobacteria)
Class:Beta Proteobacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Beta_Proteobacteria)
Order:Neisseriales (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neisseriaceae)
Family:Neisseriaceae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neisseriaceae)
Genus:Neisseria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neisseria)
Species:N. meningitidis
Binomial name (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature)Neisseria meningitidis
Albrecht & Ghon 1901Neisseria meningitidis is a heterotrophic gram-negative (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gram-negative) diplococcal (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diplococcus) bacterium (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacterium) best known for its role in meningitis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Meningitis)[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Sherris-0) and other forms of meningococcal disease (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Meningococcal_disease) such as meningococcemia. N. meningitidis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in industrialized countries and is responsible for epidemics in Africa and in Asia.
Approximately 2500 to 3500 cases of N meningitidis infection occur annually in the United States, with a case rate of about 1 in 100,000. Children younger than 5 years are at greatest risk, followed by teenagers of high school age. Rates in sub-Saharan Africa can be as high as 1 in 1000 to 1 in 100.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Mola-1)
Anton Weichselbaum in 1887 first discovered the disease in patients infected with meningococci [3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2).
Meningococci only infect humans and have never been isolated from animals because the bacterium cannot get iron other than from human sources (transferrin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Transferrin) and lactoferrin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactoferrin)).[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-3)
It exists as normal flora in the nasopharynx (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nasopharynx) of up to 40% of adults. It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Meningitis) known to cause epidemics (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Epidemic).
Meningococcus is spread through the exchange of saliva and other respiratory secretions during activities like coughing, kissing, and chewing on toys. Though it initially produces general symptoms like fatigue (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fatigue_(medical)), it can rapidly progress from fever, headache and neck stiffness (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neck_stiffness) to coma (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Coma) and death. The symptoms are easily confused with those of meningitis due to other organisms such as Hemophilus influenzae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hemophilus_influenzae) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Streptococcus_pneumoniae).[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Mola-1) Death (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Death) occurs in approximately 10% of cases.[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-4) Those with impaired immunity may be at particular risk of meningococcus (e.g. those with nephrotic syndrome (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nephrotic_syndrome) or splenectomy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Splenectomy); vaccines are given in cases of removed or non-functioning spleens (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Asplenia)).
Suspicion of meningitis is a medical emergency (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Medical_emergency) and immediate medical assessment is recommended. Current guidance in the United Kingdom (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/United_Kingdom) is that any doctor who suspects a case of meningococcal meningitis or septicaemia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sepsis) (infection of the blood) should give intravenous antibiotics (benzylpenicillin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Penicillin) or Cefotaxime (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cefotaxime)) and admit the ill person to the hospital.[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-5) This means that laboratory tests may be less likely to confirm the presence of Neisseria meningitidis as the antibiotics will dramatically lower the number of bacteria in the body. The UK guidance is based on the idea that the reduced ability to identify the bacteria is outweighed by reduced chance of death (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mortality_rate).
Septicaemia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Septicaemia) caused by Neisseria meningitidis has received much less public attention than meningococcal meningitis even though septicaemia has been linked to infant deaths. [7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-6) Meningococcal septicaemia typically causes a purpuric (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Purpuric) rash that does not lose its colour when pressed with a glass ("non-blanching") and does not cause the classical symptoms of meningitis. This means the condition may be ignored by those not aware of the significance of the rash. Septicaemia carries an approximate 50% mortality rate over a few hours from initial onset. Many health organizations advise anyone with a non-blanching rash to go to a hospital emergency room (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Emergency_room) as soon as possible.[citation needed (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)] Note that not all cases of a purpura (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Purpura)-like rash are due to meningococcal septicaemia; however, other possible causes need prompt investigation as well (e.g. ITP (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Idiopathic_thrombocytopenic_purpura) a platelet (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Platelet) disorder or Henoch-Sch&ouml;nlein purpura (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Henoch-Sch%C3%B6nlein_purpura)).
Other severe complications includeWaterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Waterhouse-Friderichsen_syndrome) (a massive, usually bilateral, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fulminant) meningococcemia), adrenal insufficiency, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Disseminated_intravascular_coagulation)

S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-05-2009, 03:53 PM
Shigella

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Shigellahttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Shigella_stool.jpg/180px-Shigella_stool.jpg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Shigella_stool.jpg)
Photomicrograph (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Micrograph) of Shigella sp. in a stool specimen
Scientific classification (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Bacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacterium)
Phylum:Proteobacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Proteobacteria)
Class:Gamma Proteobacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gamma_Proteobacteria)
Order:Enterobacteriales (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae)
Family:Enterobacteriaceae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae)
Genus:Shigella
Castellani & Chalmers 1919SpeciesS. boydii (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shigella_boydii)
S. dysenteriae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shigella_dysenteriae)
S. flexneri (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shigella_flexneri)
S. sonnei (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shigella_sonnei)


Shigella is a genus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Genus) of Gram-negative (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gram-negative), non-spore forming (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Endospore) rod-shaped bacteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacterium) closely related to Escherichia coli (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Escherichia_coli) and Salmonella (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Salmonella). The causative agent of human shigellosis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shigellosis), Shigella cause disease in primates (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Primate), but not in other mammals.[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0) It is only naturally found in humans and apes.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-WHOitem-1) During infection, it typically causes dysentery (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Dysentery). [3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2)
Shigella infection is typically via ingestion (fecal–oral contamination); depending on age and condition of the host as few as ten bacterial cells can be enough to cause an infection. Shigella causes dysentery (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Dysentery) that results in the destruction of the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa in the cecum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cecum) and rectum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Rectum). Some strains produce enterotoxin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Enterotoxin) and Shiga toxin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shiga_toxin), similar to the verotoxin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Verotoxin) of E. coli O157:H7 (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Escherichia_coli_O157_H7).[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-5) Both Shiga toxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hemolytic_uremic_syndrome).
Shigella invade the host through epithelial cells (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Epithelial_cell) of the large intestine (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Large_intestine). Using a Type III secretion system (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Type_III_secretion_system) acting as a biological syringe, the bacterium injects IpaD protein into cell, triggering bacterial invasion and the subsequent lysis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lysis) of vacuolar (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vacuole) membranes using IpaB and IpaC proteins. It utilizes a mechanism for its motility by which its IcsA protein triggers actin polymerization in the host cell (via N-WASP (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Wiskott-Aldrich_syndrome_protein) recruitment of Arp2/3 complexes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Arp2/3)) in a "rocket" propulsion fashion for cell-to-cell spread. to the cell The most common symptoms are diarrhea (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diarrhea), fever (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fever), nausea (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nausea), vomiting (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vomiting), stomach cramps, flatulence (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Flatulence), and constipation. The stool may contain blood, mucus, or pus. In rare cases, young children may have seizures (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Seizure). Symptoms can take as long as a week to show up, but most often begin two to four days after ingestion. Symptoms usually last for several days but can last for weeks. Shigella is implicated as one of the pathogenic causes of reactive arthritis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Reactive_arthritis) worldwide.[7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-6)
Severe dysentery can be treated with ampicillin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ampicillin), TMP-SMX (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), or fluoroquinolones (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fluoroquinolone) such as ciprofloxacin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ciprofloxacin) and of course rehydration.
Each of the Shigella genomes includes a virulence plasmid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Plasmid) that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. The Shigella chromosomes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chromosome) share most of their genes with that of E. coli K12 strain MG1655[8] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Yang2005-7)

A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-06-2009, 10:10 AM
Aedes aegyptihttp://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Aedes_aegypti_CDC-Gathany.jpg/180px-Aedes_aegypti_CDC-Gathany.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aedes_aegypti_CDC-Gathany.jpg)

Scientific classification (http://www.suphof.com/topic/infraclass)Kingdom:Animalia (http://www.suphof.com/topic/stuffed-animal)
Phylum:Arthropoda (http://www.suphof.com/topic/arthropod)
Class:Insecta (http://www.suphof.com/topic/insect)
Order:Diptera (http://www.suphof.com/topic/fly-14)
Family:Culicidae (http://www.suphof.com/topic/mosquito)
Genus:Aedes (http://www.suphof.com/topic/aedes)
Subgenus:Stegomyia (http://www.suphof.com/topic/aedes)
Species:Ae. aegypti
Binomial name (http://www.suphof.com/topic/binomial-nomenclature)Aedes aegypti
(Linnaeus (http://www.suphof.com/topic/carolus-linnaeus), 1762)
The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti, =Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti), is a mosquito (http://www.suphof.com/topic/mosquito) that can
viruses, and other diseases. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings on legs and a marking of the form of a lyre (http://www.suphof.com/topic/lyre) on the thorax (http://www.suphof.com/topic/thorax). The mosquito originated from Africa[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0) but is now found in the tropics (http://www.suphof.com/topic/tropics) worldwide[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1).
The yellow fever mosquito belongs to the tribe Aedini of the dipteran family Culicidae (http://www.suphof.com/topic/mosquito) and to the genus Aedes and subgenus Stegomyia. According to the recent analyses, some authors raised the subgenus Stegomyia (http://www.suphof.com/topic/aedes) to the level of genus[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2), which was traditionally treated as a subgenus (http://www.suphof.com/topic/subgenus) of the genus Aedes (http://www.suphof.com/topic/aedes). Applied biologists are often resistant to changes .
I

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-08-2009, 04:33 PM
Influnza
Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Infectious_disease) caused by RNA viruses (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/RNA_virus) of the family (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biological_family) Orthomyxoviridae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Orthomyxoviridae) (the influenza viruses), that affects birds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bird) and mammals (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mammal). The name influenza comes from the Italian (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Italian_language) influenza, meaning "influence" (Latin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Latin_language): influentia). The most common symptoms of the disease are chills (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chills), fever (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fever), sore throat (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sore_throat), muscle pains (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Myalgia), severe headache (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Headache), coughing (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cough), weakness (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fatigue_(medical)) and general discomfort (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Malaise).[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Merck-0) Fever and coughs are the most frequent symptoms. In more serious cases, influenza causes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sequela) pneumonia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pneumonia), which can be fatal, particularly for the young and the elderly. Although it is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Influenza-like_illness), especially the common cold (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Common_cold), influenza is a much more severe disease than the common cold and is caused by a different type of virus.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Eccles-1) Influenza may produce nausea (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nausea) and vomiting (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vomiting), particularly in children,[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Merck-0) but these symptoms are more common in the unrelated gastroenteritis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gastroenteritis), which is sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu".[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2)
Typically, influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Aerosols) containing the virus. Influenza can also be transmitted by bird droppings, saliva (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Saliva), nasal secretions (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mucus), feces (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Feces) and blood (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood). Infection can also occur through contact with these body fluids (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bodily_fluid) or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Airborne aerosols have been thought to cause most infections, although which means of transmission is most important is not absolutely clear. Influenza viruses can be inactivated by sunlight (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sunlight), disinfectants (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Disinfectant) and detergents (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Detergent).[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-3)[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-4) As the virus can be inactivated by soap, frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection.
Influenza spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Flu_season), resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands annually — millions in pandemic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pandemic) years. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Strain_(biology)) of the virus in humans. Often, these new strains appear when an existing flu virus spreads to humans from other animal species (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Species), or when an existing human strain picks up new genes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gene) from a virus that usually infects birds or pigs. An avian strain named H5N1 (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/H5N1) raised the concern of a new influenza pandemic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Influenza_pandemic), after it emerged in Asia in the 1990s, but it has not evolved (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Evolution) to a form that spreads easily between people.[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-5) In April 2009 a novel flu strain evolved that combined genes from human, pig, and bird flu, initially dubbed "swine flu (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Swine_flu)" and also known as influenza A(H1N1), emerged in Mexico, the United States, and several other nations. The World Health Organization (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/World_Health_Organization) officially declared the outbreak to be a "pandemic" on June 11, 2009. The WHO's declaration of a pandemic level 6 was an indication of spread, not severity.[7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-6)
Vaccinations (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vaccination) against influenza are usually given to people in developed countries (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Developed_country)[8] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-WHOvaccines-7) and to farmed poultry.[9] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-8) The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Influenza_vaccine) (TIV) that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. Typically, this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Influenzavirus_A) subtypes and one influenza B virus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Influenzavirus_B) strain.[10] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-9) The TIV carries no risk of transmitting the disease, and it has very low reactivity. A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus evolves rapidly, and new strains quickly replace the older ones. Antiviral drugs (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Antiviral_drug) can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neuraminidase_inhibitor) being particularly effective.

A

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
09-09-2009, 11:07 AM
Antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen. An antigen may also be formed within the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.

الكلمة التالية تبدا ب N

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-09-2009, 03:24 PM
Necrosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Necrotic_leg_wound.png/180px-Necrotic_leg_wound.png (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Necrotic_leg_wound.png) http://www.suphof.com/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Necrotic_leg_wound.png)
Necrotic leg wound caused by a brown recluse spider (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Brown_recluse_spider) bite


Necrosis (from the Greek (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Greek_language) "dead") is the premature death (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Death) of cells (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cell_(biology)) and living tissue (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biological_tissue). Necrosis is caused by external factors, such as infection, toxins, or trauma. This is in contrast to apoptosis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Apoptosis), which is a naturally occurring cause of cellular death. While apoptosis often provides beneficial effects to the organism, necrosis is almost always detrimental, and can be fatal.
Cells which die due to necrosis do not usually send the same chemical signals (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Signal_transduction) to the immune system that cells undergoing apoptosis do. This prevents nearby phagocytes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Phagocyte) from locating and engulfing (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Phagocytosis) the dead cells, leading to a build up of dead tissue and cell debris at or near the site of the cell death. For this reason, it is often necessary to remove necrotic tissue surgically.

S

Hibat
09-09-2009, 05:17 PM
Skilled Birth Attendant

القابله الماهرة

عرّفت منظمة الصحة العالمية القابلة الماهرة بأنّها "عامل صحي معتمد"- مثل القابلة المتمرّسة أو الطبيب أو الممرضة- تلقى ما يلزم من التعليم والتدريب لاكتساب الكفاءات اللازمة لتدبير حالات الحمل الطبيعية (غير المصحوبة بمضاعفات) والولادة والفترة التي تليها، والتفطّن للمضاعفات التي تصيب النساء والولدان وتدبيرها وإحالة من بتعرّض لها إلى الجهات المختصة"

الحرف التالي

T


تحياتي
هبات

omer abd elmajeed
09-09-2009, 05:32 PM
skilled birth attendant

القابله الماهرة

عرّفت منظمة الصحة العالمية القابلة الماهرة بأنّها "عامل صحي معتمد"- مثل القابلة المتمرّسة أو الطبيب أو الممرضة- تلقى ما يلزم من التعليم والتدريب لاكتساب الكفاءات اللازمة لتدبير حالات الحمل الطبيعية (غير المصحوبة بمضاعفات) والولادة والفترة التي تليها، والتفطّن للمضاعفات التي تصيب النساء والولدان وتدبيرها وإحالة من بتعرّض لها إلى الجهات المختصة"

الحرف التالي

t


تحياتي
هبات
تحياتى ياهبات وعودا حميدا
Treponema pallidam
هى الباكتيريا اللولبية المسببة لمرض لمرض الزهرى
الحرف القادم
M

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-12-2009, 02:34 PM
Metabolic Disorders
Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles and body fat.
A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy.
You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diabetes.html) is an example
ٍS

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-16-2009, 08:18 PM
Septicemia





Septicemia is the presence of bacteria in the blood (bacteremia (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000666.htm)) and is often associated with severe disease.

Causes

Septicemia is a serious, life-threatening infection that gets worse very quickly. It can arise from infections throughout the body, including infections in the lungs, abdomen, and urinary tract. It may come before or at the same time as infections of the bone (osteomyelitis (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000437.htm)), central nervous system (meningitis (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000680.htm)), or other tissues.

Symptoms

Septicemia can begin with spiking fevers, chills, rapid breathing, and rapid heart rate. The person looks very ill.
The symptoms rapidly progress to shock with decreased body temperature (hypothermia), falling blood pressure, confusion or other changes in mental status, and blood clotting problems that lead to a specific type of red spots on the skin (petechiae (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003235.htm) and ecchymosis).
There may be decreased or no urine output (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003147.htm).

Exams and Tests

Physical examination (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002274.htm) may show:

Low blood pressure
Low body temperature (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000038.htm) or fever
Signs of associated disease (such as meningitis, epiglottitis (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000605.htm), pneumonia (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000145.htm), or cellulitis (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000855.htm))
Tests that can confirm infection include:

Blood culture (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003744.htm)
Urine culture (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003751.htm)
CSF culture (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003769.htm)
Culture of any suspect skin lesion
CBC (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003642.htm)
Platelet count (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003647.htm)
Clotting studies

PT (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003652.htm)
PTT (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003653.htm)
Fibrinogen (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003650.htm) levels

Blood gases
A

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
09-17-2009, 01:20 PM
Adolescent Health
Critical period of life, major transition from
childhood to adulthoodom
Some common behaviors (e.g., alcohol and tobacco use, nutrition, physical activity) which start during adolescenceo, contribute to leading health problems as adults
Opportunity to promote positive development and a lifetime of healthy behaviors

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-17-2009, 03:22 PM
Hypertension

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Grade_1_hypertension.jpg/190px-Grade_1_hypertension.jpg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Grade_1_hypertension.jpg)
Automated arm blood pressure meter (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sphygmomanometer) showing arterial (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Artery) hypertension (shown a systolic blood pressure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Systolic_blood_pressure) 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diastolic_blood_pressure) 99 mmHg and heart rate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Heart_rate) of 80 beats per minute). (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/List_of_ICD-9_codes) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/OMIM) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=145500) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diseases_Database) (http://www.diseasesdatabase.com/ddb6330.htm) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/MedlinePlus) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000468.htm) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/EMedicine) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Medical_Subject_Headings) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2009/MB_cgi?field=uid&term=D006973)Hypertension is a chronic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chronic) medical condition (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Disease) in which the blood pressure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood_pressure) is elevated. It is also referred to as high blood pressure or shortened to HT, HTN or HPN. The word "hypertension", by itself, normally refers to systemic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Systemic_circulation), arterial (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Artery) hypertension.[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)
Hypertension can be classified as either essential (primary) or secondary. Essential or primary hypertension means that no medical cause can be found to explain the raised blood pressure. It is common. About 90-95% of hypertension is essential hypertension.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-pmid10645931-1)[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-pmid14597461-2)[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-isbn0-7216-0240-1-3)[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-urlHypertension:_eMedicine_Nephrology-4) Secondary hypertension (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Secondary_hypertension) indicates that the high blood pressure is a result of (i.e., secondary to) another condition, such as kidney disease (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Kidney_disease) or tumours (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Tumours) (adrenal adenoma (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Adrenal_adenoma) or pheochromocytoma (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pheochromocytoma)).
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Risk_factors) for strokes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Stroke), heart attacks (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Myocardial_infarction), heart failure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Heart_failure) and arterial aneurysm (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Aneurysm), and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chronic_renal_failure).[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-pmid19498342-5) Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Life_expectancy). At severely high pressures, defined as mean arterial pressures (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mean_arterial_pressure) 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated.[7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-6) Beginning at a systolic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Systole_(medicine)) pressure (which is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cardiac_cycle) when the ventricles (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ventricles) are contracting) of 115 mmHg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Torr) and diastolic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diastole) pressure (which is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood) of 75 mmHg (commonly written as 115/75 mmHg), cardiovascular disease (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cardiovascular_disease) (CVD) risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mmHg.[8] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-jnc7-7)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-18-2009, 02:23 PM
NEPHROSIS
Nephrosis is a medical term for kidney disease. Sometimes called nephrotic syndrome or nephropathy (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-nephropathy.htm), nephrosis has numerous possible causes. Nephrosis is typically diagnosed by the results of a urine test, and though treatment varies with the cause, it often requires life long treatment with the hope of preventing permanent kidney failure (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-renal-failure.htm).
Nephrosis is a medical term for kidney disease. Sometimes called nephrotic syndrome or nephropathy (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-nephropathy.htm), nephrosis has numerous possible causes. Nephrosis is typically diagnosed by the results of a urine test, and though treatment varies with the cause, it often requires life long treatment with the hope of preventing permanent kidney failure (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-renal-failure.htm).

Nephrosis can affect all age groups. The symptoms of nephrosis are often not outward, but include high protein levels in the urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cholesterol.htm) and edema (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-edema.htm), or swelling. Some outward symptoms can include difficulty with or a decrease of urination, and in children, frequent accidents and difficulty with toilet training can indicate kidney disease or disorder. Swelling of the ankles, fingers or face from fluid retention are also outward symptoms of kidney disease.
Nehprosis can be determined by the results of routine urine testing. Other tests are usually performed subsequent to the urinalysis (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-urinalysis.htm) to help determine the cause. In many cases, nephrosis is secondary to a disease that affects major body organs. Diabetes (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-diabetes.htm), lupus (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-lupus.htm), and some cancers can cause kidney disease, or it may be a hereditary condition. In some cases, nephrosis is the result of infection or drug use.
Treatment of nephrosis includes controlling the disease by treating any underlying medical conditions that may cause it. Commonly prescribed drugs include diuretics (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-diuretics.htm) to reduce swelling, antibiotics (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-antibiotics.htm) to treat infection and medications to reduce the output of protein. Dietary changes are also usually prescribed for patients diagnosed with nephrosis. Other medications may be necessary depending on the underlying causes and other conditions that may be affected by the disease.
Nephrosis can be a complicated disease that carries risks and complications to other organs, such as the heart. Preventing kidney disease from progressing is the best course for treatment, but some patients with kidney disease will eventually loose their kidney function. Dialysis (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-dialysis.htm) or transplant may be the end result. Patients with kidney disease should not take certain medications, even in the beginning stages. If you suspect complications with your kidneys, you should see your doctor.
S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
09-29-2009, 09:21 AM
Social stigma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Beliefs) that are perceived to be against cultural norms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Norm_(sociology)). Stigma is often based on ignorance (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ignorance), irrational (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Irrational) or unfounded fears, mass hysteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mass_hysteria), lack of education, or a lack of information pertaining to a particular person or group. Social stigma often leads to marginalization (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Marginalization).[Citation needed]
Examples of existing or historical social stigmas include mental illness (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mental_illness), physical disabilities (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Physical_disabilities) and diseases, as well as illegitimacy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Illegitimacy), skin tone or affiliation with a specific nationality (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nationality), religion (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Religion) (or lack of religion[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1)) or being deemed to be or proclaiming oneself to be of a certain ethnicity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ethnicity), in any of a myriad of geopolitical and corresponding sociopolitical contexts in various parts of the world.
The perception or attribution, rightly or wrongly, of criminality (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Crime) carries a strong social stigma.
Stigma comes in three forms:[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2) Firstly, overt or external deformations, such as scars (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Scar), physical manifestations of anorexia nervosa (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa), leprosy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Leprosy), or of a physical disability (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Physical_disability) or social disability, such as obesity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Obesity). Secondly, deviations in personal traits, including mental illness, drug addiction (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Drug_addict), alcoholism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Alcoholic), and criminal backgrounds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Criminal) are stigmatized in this way. Thirdly, "tribal stigmas" are traits, imagined or real, of ethnic groups (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ethnic_groups), nationalities (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nationalities), or religions that are deemed to constitute a deviation from what is perceived to be the prevailing normative ethnicity, nationality or religion. Stigma is generally based on stereotypical (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Stereotype) and uninformed impressions or characterizations of a given subject. Although the specific social categories that become stigmatized can vary across times and places, the three basic forms of stigma (physical deformity, poor personal traits, and tribal outgroup status) are found in most cultures and time periods, leading some psychologists to hypothesize that the tendency to stigmatize may have evolutionary roots
A

amerabakheet
09-29-2009, 01:44 PM
Active Surveillance
Arelatively expensive system of surveillance that ivolves employing people specifically to collect data on the disease or risk factor in question


N

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
09-29-2009, 05:26 PM
Environmental Impact Statement An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is a document that provides comprehensive information about a project's purpose and need, proposed plans, and potential environmental effects in areas such as wetlands and wildlife, noise and future traffic operations. Creating an EIS is required as part of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) and the State Environmental Protection Act (SEPA). Before an EIS can become final, it must be released in draft form for the public to review, comment on and ask questionsabout.

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
10-02-2009, 09:22 AM
Tetanus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



TetanusClassification and external resourceshttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/CBell1809.jpg/190px-CBell1809.jpg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:CBell1809.jpg)
Muscular spasms in a patient suffering from tetanus. Painting by Sir Charles Bell (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sir_Charles_Bell), 1809.. (http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/?ga30.htm+a35)

Tetanus, also called lockjaw, is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Skeletal_muscle) fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Tetanospasmin), a neurotoxin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neurotoxin) produced by the Gram-positive (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gram-positive), obligate anaerobic bacterium (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Anaerobic_organism) Clostridium tetani (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Clostridium_tetani). Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Spasms) develop in the jaw (thus the name "lockjaw") and elsewhere in the body.[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Baron-0) Infection can be prevented by proper immunization and by post-exposure prophylaxis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Post-exposure_prophylaxis).[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-CDC-1)

Tetanus affects skeletal muscle (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Skeletal_muscle), a type of striated muscle (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Striated_muscle) used in voluntary movement. The other type of striated muscle, cardiac or heart muscle (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Heart_muscle), cannot be tetanized (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Tetanized_state) because of its intrinsic electrical properties. Mortality rates reported vary from 40% to 78%. In recent years, approximately 11% of reported tetanus cases have been fatal (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fatal). The highest mortality rates (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mortality_rate) are in unvaccinated persons and persons over 60 years of age.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-CDC-1)
The incubation period of tetanus may be up to several months but is usually about 8 days.[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2)[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-3) In general, the further the injury site is from the central nervous system (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Central_nervous_system), the longer the incubation period. The shorter the incubation period, the more severe the symptoms.[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Farrar-4) In neonatal tetanus, symptoms usually appear from 4 to 14 days after birth, averaging about 7 days. On the basis of clinical findings, four different forms of tetanus have been described.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-CDC-1)
Generalized tetanus is the most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of cases. The generalized form usually presents with a descending pattern. The first sign is trismus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Trismus), or lockjaw, and the facial spasms called risus sardonicus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Risus_sardonicus), followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. Other symptoms include elevated temperature, sweating, elevated blood pressure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood_pressure), and episodic rapid heart rate. Spasms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Spasm) may occur frequently and last for several minutes with the body shaped into a characteristic form called opisthotonos (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Opisthotonos). Spasms continue for 3–4 weeks, and complete recovery may take months.
Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns. Infants who have not acquired passive immunity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Immunity_(medical)) because the mother has never been immunized are at risk. It usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. Neonatal tetanus is common in many developing countries and is responsible for about 14% (215,000) of all neonatal deaths, but is very rare in developed countries.[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-WHO_2000-5)
Local tetanus is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area as the injury. The contractions may persist for many weeks before gradually subsiding. Local tetanus is generally milder; only about 1% of cases are fatal, but it may precede the onset of generalized tetanus.
Cephalic tetanus is a rare form of the disease, occasionally occurring with otitis media (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Otitis_media) (ear infections) in which C. tetani is present in the flora of the middle ear, or following injuries to the head. There is involvement of the cranial nerves (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cranial_nerve), especially in the facial area.
S

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
10-07-2009, 10:00 PM
S
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

الذئبةالحمراء الجهازية Systemic Lupus Erythematosus أو SLE هو مرض مناعي ذاتي autoimmune diseases , وهو ضمن مجموعة من الأمراض يهاجم فيها الجهاز المناعي أنسجة و خلايا بالجسم محدثا بها التهابات و نزف.
وهو مرض مزمن يصيب أعضاء متعددة multisystem ، ويتميز بوجود فترات من النشاط وفترات من الكمون ، وأغلب الإصابات به تكون بين النساء ما بين 15 إلى 45 سنه أي في فترة الخصوبة child bearing age حيث تبلغ النسبة 70 إلى 90 % من مجموع الإصابات بالمرض ، ويمكن أن يصيب المرض كل الأعمار بما في ذلك حديثي الولادة.وحيث أن المرض يصيب أجهزة متعددة بالجسم فإن أعراضه وعلاماته تكون متعددة وتختلف من حالة إلى أخرى.
الحرف القادم S أيضاً

amerabakheet
10-11-2009, 10:36 AM
Surveillance
surveillance is ongoing systematic collection , analysis, and interpretion of outcome specific data for use in planning implementing and evaluating public health policies and practices
الحرف التالى هو
(E)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
10-11-2009, 03:12 PM
Ecology :study of the interactions between organisms and the interactions of these organisms with their environment.[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)
Like many of the natural sciences, however, a conceptual understanding of ecology is found in the broader details of study, including:

life processes explaining adaptations (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Adaptations)
distribution and abundance of organisms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Organisms)
the flux of materials and energy through living communities
the successional development of ecosystems, and
the abundance (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Abundance_(ecology)) and distribution of biodiversity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biodiversity) in context of the environment (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Environment_(biophysical)).[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Allee49-1)[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2)[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-3)
Ecology is concerned with the web or network of relations among organisms at different scales of organization. Ecology is also distinguished from natural history (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Natural_history), which deals primarily with the descriptive study of organisms. Ecologists are scientists (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Scientists) that study ecosystems (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ecosystem). Ecosystems are real places (a pond, field, forest, etc.) or they can be conceptually abstract schemes showing the direction and quantified amounts of energy and resources flowing through a system or network of relations. [5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Kormondy95-4)[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-5)
Ecology has many practical applications in conservation biology (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Conservation_biology), wetland management, natural resource management (agriculture, forestry , fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ecological_economics), basic & applied science and it provides a conceptual framework for understanding and researching human social interaction (human ecology (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Human_ecology)).[7] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Omerod99-6)[8] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Phillipson09-7)[9] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Pickett08-8)[10] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Aguirre09-9) Ecosystems also provide a host of goods and services often without market value[11] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Costanza97-10). Broad examples include:
Y

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
10-11-2009, 05:16 PM
Yersinia enterocolitica
Name of the Organism:1

Yersinia enterocolitica (and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis)

Y. enterocolitica, a small rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium, is often isolated from clinical specimens such as wounds, feces, sputum and mesenteric lymph nodes. However, it is not part of the normal human flora. Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from the diseased appendix of humans.

Both organisms have often been isolated from such animals as pigs, birds, beavers, cats, and dogs. Only Y. enterocolitica has been detected in environmental and food sources, such as ponds, lakes, meats, ice cream, and milk. Most isolates have been found not to be pathogenic.
. Name of Disease:2

Yersiniosis

There are 3 pathogenic species in the genus Yersinia, but only Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis cause gastroenteritis. To date, no foodborne outbreaks caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis have been reported in the United States, but human infections transmitted via contaminated water and foods have been reported in Japan. Y. pestis, the causative agent of "the plague," is genetically very similar to Y. pseudotuberculosis but infects humans by routes other than food.
. Nature of Disease:3

Yersiniosis is frequently characterized by such symptoms as gastroenteritis with diarrhea and/or vomiting; however, fever and abdominal pain are the hallmark symptoms. Yersinia infections mimic appendicitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis, but the bacteria may also cause infections of other sites such as wounds, joints and the urinary tract.
. Infective dose:4

Unknown.

Illness onset is usually between 24 and 48 hours after ingestion, which (with food or drink as vehicle) is the usual route of infection.
. Diagnosis of Human Illness:5

Diagnosis of yersiniosis begins with isolation of the organism from the human host's feces, blood, or vomit, and sometimes at the time of appendectomy. Confirmation occurs with the isolation, as well as biochemical and serological identification, of Y. enterocolitica from both the human host and the ingested foodstuff. Diarrhea is reported to occur in about 80% of cases; abdominal pain and fever are the most reliable symptoms.

Because of the difficulties in isolating yersiniae from feces, several countries rely on serology. Acute and convalescent patient sera are titered against the suspect serotype of Yersinia spp.

Yersiniosis has been misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease (regional enteritis) as well as appendicitis.
Associated Foods:6

Strains of Y. enterocolitica can be found in meats (pork, beef, lamb, etc.), oysters, fish, and raw milk. The exact cause of the food contamination is unknown. However, the prevalence of this organism in the soil and water and in animals such as beavers, pigs, and squirrels, offers ample opportunities for it to enter our food supply. Poor sanitation and improper sterilization techniques by food handlers, including improper storage, cannot be overlooked as contributing to contamination.
. Frequency of the Disease:7

Yersiniosis does not occur frequently. It is rare unless a breakdown occurs in food processing techniques. CDC estimates that about 17,000 cases occur annually in the USA. Yersiniosis is a far more common disease in Northern Europe, Scandinavia, and Japan.
Complications:8

The major "complication" is the performance of unnecessary appendectomies, since one of the main symptoms of infections is abdominal pain of the lower right quadrant.

Both Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis have been associated with reactive arthritis, which may occur even in the absence of obvious symptoms. The frequency of such postenteritis arthritic conditions is about 2-3%.

Another complication is bacteremia (entrance of organisms into the blood stream), in which case the possibility of a disseminating disease may occur. This is rare, however, and fatalities are also extremely rare.
. Target Populations:9

The most susceptible populations for the main disease and possible complications are the very young, the debilitated, the very old and persons undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Those most susceptible to postenteritis arthritis are individuals with the antigen HLA-B27 (or related antigens such as B7).
. Food Analysis:10

The isolation method is relatively easy to perform, but in some instances, cold enrichment may be required. Y. enterocolitica can be presumptively identified in 36-48 hours. However, confirmation may take 14-21 days or more. Determination of pathogenicity is more complex. The genes encoding for invasion of mammalian cells are located on the chromosome while a 40-50 MDal plasmid encodes most of the other virulence associated phenotypes. The 40-50 MDal plasmid is present in almost all the pathogenic Yersinia species, and the plasmids appear to be homologous.


الحرف القادم A

نادية السماني
10-17-2009, 01:03 PM
Abate
هو مبيد من المبيدات الحشرية (insecticides) وهو من مجموعة (organophsphorous compounds)
الابيت (abate) هو الاسم التجاري له اما الاسم العلمي هو (temephos)
مبيد الابيت يعتبر من المبيدات الآمنة علي حياة الانسان والحيوانات والاسماك والطيور لانه ذو سمية ضعيعفة جدا و يستخدم في مكافحة اليرقات (larvicides) وخاصة يرقات البعوض واستخدم في جمهورية السودان ومازال يستخدم في مكافحة يرقات بعوض الانفلس



نهاية كلمة (abate) حرف E وهو بداية المصطلح القادم

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
10-17-2009, 09:03 PM
Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF)
حمى الإيبولا النزفية حمى فيروسية
وتم الكشف عن فيروس الإيبولا لأوّل مرّة في عام 1976 في غرب السودان وذلك عقب حدوث أوبئة كبرى في نزارا الواقعة جنوب السودان، ويامبوكو الواقعة شمال زائير.
ويتفرّع فيروس الإيبولا إلى خمسة أنماط فيروسية منفصلة وهي بونديبوغيو وكوت ديفوار وريستون والسودان وزائير. وقد تبيّن أنّ أنماط بونديبوغيو والسودان والزايير تسبّبت في وقوع فاشيات واسعة من فاشيات حمى الإيبولا النزفية في أفريقيا وأدّت إلى وفاة 25% إلى 90% من مجموع الحالات السريرية، بينما لم يتسبّب نمطا كوت ديفوار وريستون في وقوع أيّة فاشيات من هذا القبيل.
وينتقل فيروس الإيبولا من خلال ملامسة دم المريض وسوائل جسمه ونُسجه التي تحتوي على الفيروس. كما يمكن أن ينتقل الفيروس جرّاء مناولة حيوانات برّية (قردة الشامبانزي وقردة الغوريلا والنسانيس والظباء وخفافيش الثمار) تحمل الفيروس، سواء كانت مريضة أو ميّتة. ويتمثّل أهمّ العلاجات، عموماً، في توفير الرعاية الداعمة.

(EHF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever and one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind.
The Ebola virus was first identified in the western equatorial province of Sudan and in a nearby region of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1976 after significant epidemics in Nzara, southern Sudan and Yambuku, northern Zaire.
There are five distinct species of the Ebola virus: Bundibugyo, Côte d’Ivoire, Reston, Sudan and Zaïre. Bundibugyo, Sudan and Zaïre species have been associated with large outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) in Africa causing death in 25-90% of all clinically ill cases.
The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected persons. Transmission of the Ebola virus has also occurred by handling sick or dead infected wild animals (chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope, fruit bats). The predominant treatment is general supportive therapy.
R الحرف القادم

عفاف حامد
10-18-2009, 12:07 PM
Rotavirus infections

Rotaviruses are a leading cause of severe diarrhoeal disease and dehydration in infants and young children throughout the world. Most symptomatic episodes occur in young children between the ages of 3 months and 2 years. The virus spreads rapidly, presumably through person-to-person contact, airborne droplets, or possibly contact with contaminated toys.

Symptoms usually appear approximately two to three days after infection, and include projectile vomiting and very watery diarrhoea, often with fever and abdominal pain. The first infection is usually the worst one.

There is no specific drug treatment for rotavirus infection, although oral rehydration therapy is recommended. There are now two new rotavirus vaccines to prevent severe rotavirus disease.

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
10-21-2009, 04:57 PM
Social stigma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Jump to: navigation (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#column-one), search (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#searchInput)
Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Beliefs) that are perceived to be against cultural norms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Norm_(sociology)). Stigma is often based on ignorance (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ignorance), irrational (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Irrational) or unfounded fears, mass hysteria (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mass_hysteria), lack of education, or a lack of information pertaining to a particular person or group. Social stigma often leads to marginalization (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Marginalization).[Citation needed]
Examples of existing or historical social stigmas include mental illness (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mental_illness), physical disabilities (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Physical_disabilities) and diseases, as well as illegitimacy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Illegitimacy), skin tone or affiliation with a specific nationality (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nationality), religion (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Religion) (or lack of religion[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1)) or being deemed to be or proclaiming oneself to be of a certain ethnicity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ethnicity), in any of a myriad of geopolitical and corresponding sociopolitical contexts in various parts of the world.
The perception or attribution, rightly or wrongly, of criminality (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Crime) carries a strong social stigma.
Stigma comes in three forms:[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2) Firstly, overt or external deformations, such as scars (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Scar), physical manifestations of anorexia nervosa (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa), leprosy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Leprosy), or of a physical disability (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Physical_disability) or social disability, such as obesity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Obesity). Secondly, deviations in personal traits, including mental illness, drug addiction (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Drug_addict), alcoholism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Alcoholic), and criminal backgrounds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Criminal) are stigmatized in this way. Thirdly, "tribal stigmas" are traits, imagined or real, of ethnic groups (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ethnic_groups), nationalities (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Nationalities), or religions that are deemed to constitute a deviation from what is perceived to be the prevailing normative ethnicity, nationality or religion. Stigma is generally based on stereotypical (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Stereotype) and uninformed impressions or characterizations of a given subject. Although the specific social categories that become stigmatized can vary across times and places, the three basic forms of stigma (physical deformity, poor personal traits, and tribal outgroup status) are found in most cultures and time periods, leading some psychologists to hypothesize that the tendency to stigmatize may have evolutionary roots. STEGMA
A

omer abd elmajeed
10-21-2009, 07:02 PM
Analysis Study
الدراسة التحليلية
احدى الدراسات الوبائية المهمة والشيقة لدراسة وبائيات الامراض وتنقسم الى
الحالة والحالة الضابطة case and case control study وهى تبدا من المرض الى العامل المسبب للمرض بين الحاله والحالة الضابطة ( السل وعلاقته بالعوامل المسببة-سوء التغذية -الازدحام .......الخ
ال cohort الزمر او المجموعات وهى تبداء من العامل المسبب الى المرض (التدخين ـــــــــــ وسرطان الرئة ) مثلا
او السمنة وامراض القلب
الحرف التالى
Y

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
10-22-2009, 05:23 PM
الحمى الصفراء Yellow Fever
Yellow fever is a viral disease, found in tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. It principally affects humans and monkeys, and is transmitted via the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. It can produce devastating outbreaks, which can be prevented and controlled by mass vaccination campaigns.
The first symptoms of the disease usually appear 3–6 days after infection. The first, or “acute”, phase is characterized by fever, muscle pain, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. After 3–4 days, most patients improve and symptoms disappear. However, in a few cases, the disease enters a “toxic” phase: fever reappears, and the patient develops jaundice and sometimes bleeding, with blood appearing in the vomit (the typical "vomito negro"). About 50% of patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 days.
There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. Vaccination is highly recommended as a preventive measure for travellers to, and people living in, endemic countries.
الحرف القادم R

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
10-22-2009, 05:44 PM
River blindness

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:TklzDQZCzAj2DM:http://downloads.unmultimedia.org/cms/radio/content/uploads/2009/07/full/river-blindness.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://downloads.unmultimedia.org/cms/radio/content/uploads/2009/07/full/river-blindness.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/detail/78577.html&usg=__XU-NDIop7sjOu_xBoMR6e2UBJqg=&h=150&w=175&sz=14&hl=ar&start=19&um=1&tbnid=TklzDQZCzAj2DM:&tbnh=86&tbnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Driver%2Bblindness%2Bdisease%26hl%3Dar %26lr%3D%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1)


http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:_kjCgn6ccyAwdM:http://www.phsource.us/images/Helminths/imageye2.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.phsource.us/images/Helminths/imageye2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.phsource.us/PH/HELM/helminths.htm&usg=__KIf5EWLAkC34YtUmyAYzTE3WF5M=&h=480&w=640&sz=88&hl=ar&start=4&um=1&tbnid=_kjCgn6ccyAwdM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3Driver%2Bblindness%2Bdisease%26hl%3Dar %26lr%3D%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1)



River blindness or Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease with an insect vector that breeds in water. It is the world's second leading infectious cause of blindness. Controlling insect breeding sites in rivers is one of the pillars of prevention.
The disease and its cause

Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a parasitic disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus, a thin parasitic worm that can live for up to 14 years in the human body. The disease is transmitted from one person to another through the bite of a blackfly (Simulium).
The blackfly lays its eggs in the water of fast-flowing rivers, which mature into adult blackflies in 8 to 12 days. The female blackfly typically seeks a bloodmeal after mating and, upon biting a person who is infected with onchocerciasis, may ingest worm larvae, which can then be passed on to the next person bitten by the blackfly. Eventually, the transmitted worm larvae develop into adult worms and settle into fibrous nodules in the human body close to the surface of the skin or near the joints
.
Effect on people

Each adult female worm (macrofilaria), which can be more than ½ metre in length, produces millions of microscopic young worms (microfilariae). The microfilariae migrate through the skin and, upon death, cause intense itching and depigmentation of the skin (“leopard skin”), lymphadenitis resulting in hanging groins and elephantiasis of the genitals, serious visual impairment, and blindness when they reach the eye
Symptoms of the disease in a person usually begin to show 1-3 years after infection.
Distribution

Onchocerciasis is found in 36 countries in Africa as well as in Guatemala, southern Mexico, some areas of Venezuela, small areas in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador, and in the Arabian peninsula.
Scope of the problem

Onchocerciasis is the world's second leading infectious cause of blindness. A total of 18 million people are affected worldwide. Of those affected outside the area in West Africa covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, over 6.5 million suffer from severe itching or dermatitis and 270 000 are blind.
Intervention

There are two main actions undertaken against onchocerciasis control: spraying of breeding sites in water of the blackflies with larvicides, and the treatment of patients with a drug (ivermectin) that kills the young worms
الحرف القادم (S).

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
10-22-2009, 09:19 PM
شستوسوماسيس(البلهارسيا) Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Larval forms of the parasites, which are released by freshwater snails, penetrate the skin of people in the water.
In the body, the larvae develop into adult schistosomes, which live in the blood vessels. The females release eggs, some of which are passed out of the body in the urine or faeces. Others are trapped in body tissues, causing an immune reaction.
In urinary schistosomiasis, there is progressive damage to the bladder, ureters and kidneys. In intestinal schistosomiasis, there is progressive enlargement of the liver and spleen, intestinal damage, and hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels.
Control of schistosomiasis is based on drug treatment, snail control, improved sanitation and health education.
الحرف القادم S

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
10-22-2009, 09:42 PM
Sickle cell disease
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:Rx_deAkf9NlmoM:http://adultstemcellawareness.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/sickle-cell.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://adultstemcellawareness.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/sickle-cell.jpg&imgrefurl=http://adultstemcellawareness.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/adios-sickle-cell-anemia/&usg=__aktTZCDYzyFlUcVsXAq_7ArsXaU=&h=360&w=360&sz=16&hl=ar&start=1&um=1&tbnid=Rx_deAkf9NlmoM:&tbnh=121&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsickle%2Bcell%2Banemia%26hl%3Dar%26lr %3D%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1)

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:JC-YDBFU5VpJLM:http://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/blood/sickle_cell_anemia2.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/blood/sickle_cell_anemia2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/blood/notes_blood_disorders.html&usg=__ZcwP0Zkooi38LtckqMPAnw7v0GY=&h=328&w=395&sz=21&hl=ar&start=2&um=1&tbnid=JC-YDBFU5VpJLM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsickle%2Bcell%2Banemia%26hl%3Dar%26lr %3D%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1)

http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:sbciQXe2uJRd1M:http://www.montgomerycollege.edu/~wolexik/Sickle%2520Cell%2520Anemia-1000x.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.montgomerycollege.edu/~wolexik/Sickle%2520Cell%2520Anemia-1000x.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.montgomerycollege.edu/~wolexik/205_histology__page.htm&usg=__et47qSgo2up9DehIT81OybGRKqc=&h=480&w=640&sz=22&hl=ar&start=8&um=1&tbnid=sbciQXe2uJRd1M:&tbnh=103&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsickle%2Bcell%2Banemia%26hl%3Dar%26lr %3D%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1)


Sickle-cell disease, or sickle-cell anaemia (or drepanocytosis), is a life-long blood disorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_disorder) characterized by red blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cell) that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle) shape. Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a risk of various complications. The sickling occurs because of a mutation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutation) in the hemoglobin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin)gene (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene). Life expectancy is shortened, with studies reporting an average life expectancy of 42 and 48 years for males and females, respectively.
Sickle-cell disease, usually presenting in childhood, occurs more commonly in people (or their descendants) from parts of tropical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical) and sub-tropical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-tropical) regions where malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria) is or was common. One-third of all indigenous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples) inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-Saharan_Africa) carry the gene, because in areas where malaria is common, there is a survival value (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution) in carrying only a single sickle-cell gene (sickle cell trait (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle_cell_trait)). Those with only one of the two alleles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alleles) of the sickle-cell disease are more resistant to malaria, since the infestation of the malaria plasmodium is halted by the sickling of the cells which it infests.

.
الحرف القادم E

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
10-22-2009, 10:01 PM
EPILEPSY الصرع
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which may vary from a brief lapse of attention or muscle jerks, to severe and prolonged convulsions. The seizures are caused by sudden, usually brief, excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells (neurones). In most cases, epilepsy can be successfully treated with anti-epileptic drugs.
Y الحرف القادم

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-04-2009, 03:18 PM
تلاحظ ان هنالك تكرار في المواد المكتوبة في هذا البوست لذا نرجو من الإخوة الزملاء والزميلات استخدام خاصية البحث قبل الكتابة لتفادي التكرار ولتنويع المواضيع لزيادة الغلة المعرفية وتعم الفائدة .

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-04-2009, 03:30 PM
An egg yolk is a part[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-egg_structure-0) of an egg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Egg_(biology)) which feeds the developing embryo (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Embryo).
The egg yolk is suspended in the egg white (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Egg_white) (known more formally as albumen or ovalbumin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ovalbumin)) by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chalaza). Prior to fertilization, the yolk together with the germinal disc (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Germinal_disc) is a single cell (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cell_(biology)); one of the few single cells that can be seen by the naked eye.
As a food (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Egg_(food)), yolks are a major source of vitamins (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vitamin) and minerals. They contain all of the egg's fat (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fat) and cholesterol (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cholesterol), and almost half of the protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Protein).
If left intact while cooking fried eggs, the yellow yolk surrounded by a flat blob of egg white creates the distinctive sunny-side up (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fried_egg) form of the food. Mixing the two components together before frying results in the pale yellow form found in omelettes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Omelette) and scrambled eggs (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Scrambled_eggs).
http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p18bf963c41.jpg (http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p18bf963c41.jpg)

K

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
11-04-2009, 04:40 PM
وجود الأحماض الكيتونية في الدم Ketoacidosis
An emergency condition in which extreme hyperglycemia, along with a severe lack of insulin, results in the breakdown of body fat for energy and an accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine. Signs are nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fruity odor on the breath, and rapid breathing. If left untreated, it can lead to coma and death.
هي حالة تحدث عند الارتفاع الشديد لمستوى السكر في الدم مع عدم توفر الأنسولين ، فيلجأ الجسم عندها إلى استخدام الدهون كبديل عن الكربوهيدريت لإنتاج الطاقة مما يؤدي إلى تراكم الكيتونات في الدم.الأعراض: غثيان (بالدارجي طمام) وتقيؤ،ألم بالبطن، سرعة التنفس وظهور رائحة الأستون من نفس المصاب. وهي حالة خطيرة قد تؤدي إلى الوفاة في حالة عدم علاجها (ومن هنا أوصي جميع مصابي السكري بالمراقبة الدائمة لمستوى السكر في الدم ).
الحرف القادم S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-04-2009, 06:04 PM
Soya Beans
Soybean

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Soybeanhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Soybean.USDA.jpg/240px-Soybean.USDA.jpg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Soybean.USDA.jpg)Scientific classification (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Plantae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Plant)
Phylum:Magnoliophyta (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Flowering_plant)
Class:Magnoliopsida (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Magnoliopsida)
Order:Fabales (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fabales)
Family:Fabaceae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fabaceae)
Subfamily:Faboideae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Faboideae)
Genus:Glycine (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Glycine_(plant))
Species:G. max
Binomial name (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature)Glycine max
(L. (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus)) Merr. (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Elmer_Drew_Merrill)The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (commonly misspelled "Soyabean") (Glycine max) is a species of legume (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Legume) native to East Asia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/East_Asia). The plant is classed as an oilseed (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Oilseed) rather than a pulse (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pulse_(legume)). It is an annual plant that has been used in China for 5,000 years to primarily add nitrogen into the soil as part of crop rotation. The plant is sometimes referred to as greater bean (China) or edamame (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Edamame) (Japan), though the latter is more commonly used in English when referring to a specific dish. In Vietnam (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vietnam), the plant is called đậu tương or đậu nành.
The English word "soy" is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of 醤油 (しょうゆ, shōyu), the Japanese word for Soya sauce; soya comes from the Dutch adaptation of the same word.
Fat-free(defatted) soybean meal is a primary, relatively low-cost, source of protein for animal feeds or rations; soy vegetable oil (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vegetable_oil) is another valuable product of processing the soybean crop. Soybean products such as TVP (textured vegetable protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Textured_vegetable_protein)), for example, are important ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues. Soybeans are also used to make soy sauce (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Soy_sauce), and the oil is used in many industrial applications. The main producers of soy are the United States, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Phytic_acid), alpha-Linolenic acid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Alpha-Linolenic_acid), and the isoflavones (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Isoflavones) genistein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Genistein) and daidzein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Daidzein)

N

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
11-04-2009, 06:48 PM
Nutrition علم التغذية
is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition – an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity – is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity
N الحرف القادم

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
11-04-2009, 08:46 PM
Nutrient agar

Nutrient agar is a microbiological growth medium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_medium) commonly used for the routine cultivation of non-fastidious (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fastidious) bacteria.
Nutrient agar typically contains (w/v (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percentage_solution)):[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrient_agar#cite_note-0)
Nutrient agar is a microbiological growth medium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_medium) commonly used for the routine cultivation of non-fastidious (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fastidious) bacteria.

Nutrient agar typically contains (w/v (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percentage_solution)):[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrient_agar#cite_note-0)

0.5 % peptone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptone#Peptide_classes)
0.3 % beef extract
1.5 % agar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agar)
pH adjusted to neutral at 25 °C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celsius)
.
Nutrient broth does not contain agar


R الحرف القادم

عمر حمد محمد حمد
11-05-2009, 12:40 AM
. Rotavirus:
Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of diarrhea, and severe infection (rotavirus gastroenteritis) is the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children.Almost all kids have had a rotavirus infection by the time they're 5 years old , rotavirus infection outbreaks are common during the winter and spring months. It is particularly a problem in childcare centers and children's hospitals because rotavirus infection is very contagious.
Symptoms of the illness: hildcare workers, also can spread the virus, especially if they don't wash their hands after changing diapers.Kids with a rotavirus infection have fever , nausea, and vomiting, often followed by abdominal cramps and frequent, watery diarrhea. Kids may also have a cough and runny nose. As with all viruses, though, some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms, especially in adults.
Contagiousness:
The virus passes in the stool of infected people , Kids can become infected if they put their fingers in their mouths after touching something that has been contaminated. Usually this happens when kids don't wash their hands often enough, especially before eating and after using the toilet.
People who care for children, including health care and childcare workers also can spread the virus, especially if they don't wash their hands after changing diapers. الحرف القادم ،،،،،،،،،،S

Nasr Eldien Ahmed Alu
11-05-2009, 07:04 AM
Sanitizer
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:Z9JSoGu2UKQPYM:http://www.gogreeninstages.com/images/biocitrus-hand-foam.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gogreeninstages.com/images/biocitrus-hand-foam.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gogreeninstages.com/&usg=__mAkW8cNEkgVAL8Y8uAuua8JklRk=&h=550&w=450&sz=16&hl=ar&start=14&um=1&tbnid=Z9JSoGu2UKQPYM:&tbnh=133&tbnw=109&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsanitizers%26hl%3Dar%26lr%3D%26sa%3DX %26um%3D1)


http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:k-ke-O8jgYniuM:http://www.inthepinkinc.com/images/product_sanitizer.png (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.inthepinkinc.com/images/product_sanitizer.png&imgrefurl=http://www.inthepinkinc.com/products_sanitizers.html&usg=___irSST5JWZQtWHuS5Aj1bS1YIvo=&h=247&w=237&sz=86&hl=ar&start=7&um=1&tbnid=k-ke-O8jgYniuM:&tbnh=110&tbnw=106&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsanitizers%26hl%3Dar%26lr%3D%26sa%3DX %26um%3D1)


http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:dBICyaVgCRTbrM:http://www.wechealthunit.org/inspect/emergency-preparedness/pandemic-flu/images/hand_sanitizer_image_May2006.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.wechealthunit.org/inspect/emergency-preparedness/pandemic-flu/images/hand_sanitizer_image_May2006.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.wechealthunit.org/inspect/emergency-preparedness/pandemic-flu/frequently-asked-questions-on-pandemic-influenza/how-do-i-use-hand-sanitizers-properly&usg=__7wTFBz4U4UsZGp9fkyrcYEEcK6k=&h=404&w=400&sz=40&hl=ar&start=2&um=1&tbnid=dBICyaVgCRTbrM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=123&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsanitizers%26hl%3Dar%26lr%3D%26sa%3DX %26um%3D1)





sanitizers work by stripping away the outer layer of oil on the skin. This usually prevents bacteria (http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/ss/prokaryotes.htm) present in the body from coming to the surface of the hand. However, these bacteria that are normally present in the body are generally not the
kinds of bacteria that will make us sick


R الحرف القادم..

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-05-2009, 12:54 PM
Rennet
Rennet (pronounced /ˈrɛnɪt/ (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English)) is a natural complex of enzymes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Enzyme) produced in any mammalian (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mammal) stomach (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Stomach) to digest the mother's milk, and is often used in the production of cheese (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cheese). Rennet contains many enzymes, including a proteolytic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Proteolytic) enzyme (protease (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Protease)) that coagulates (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Curd) the milk, causing it to separate into solids (curds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Curds)) and liquid (whey (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Whey)). The active enzyme (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Enzyme) in rennet is called chymosin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chymosin) or rennin (EC (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/EC_number) 3.4.23.4 (http://www.expasy.org/cgi-bin/nicezyme.pl?3.4.23.4)) but there are also other important enzymes in it, e.g., pepsin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pepsin) or lipase (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lipase). There are non-animal sources for rennet that are suitable for vegetarian consumption
T

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
11-05-2009, 01:34 PM
Transtheoretical Model

The Transtheoretical Model is a model of intentional change. It is a model that focuses on the decision making of the individual. Other approaches to health promotion have focused primarily on social influences on behavior or on biological influences on behavior.

It is a theoretical model of behavior change, which has been the basis for developing effective interventions to promote health behavior change. The Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983; Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992; Prochaska & Velicer, 1997) is an integrative model of behavior change. Key constructs from other theories are integrated. The model describes how people modify a problem behavior or acquire a positive behavior. The central organizing construct of the model is the Stages of Change.

The Transtheoretical model is currently conceptualised in terms of several major dimensions. The core constructs, around which the other dimensions are organised, are stages of change. These represent ordered categories along a continuum of motivational readiness to change a problem behavior.

تيسير عبد الرحمن بابكر عل
11-05-2009, 09:25 PM
leprosy
مرض الجذام
من الامراض الجلدية الخطيرة تسببه كل من bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis
مرض فترة حضانته طويلة ويصيب الجلد والاعصاب او الاثنين معا ينتشر فى المناطق الاستوائية وشبه الاستوائية من افريقيا وامريكيا الجنوبية وآسيا
تحدث العدوى بملامسة الأشخاص المصابين. والتماس مع القرح ومفرزات الأغشية المخاطية

أو تواجد الحشرات مثل (الصراصير, البق, الفراش وطفيليات الجلد).
y

تيسير عبد الرحمن بابكر عل
11-09-2009, 03:33 PM
Yersinia pestis
البكتريا المسببة لمرض الطاعون
Scentiific classification
Kingdom: Eubacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Yersinia
Species Y. pestis

Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals.
Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.[1] All three forms have been responsible for high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (a bubonic plague) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.
History
Y. pestis was discovered in 1894 by Alexandre Yersin, a Swiss/French physician and bacteriologist from the Pasteur Institute, during an epidemic of plague in Hong Kong.[3] Yersin was a member of the Pasteur school of thought. Shibasaburo Kitasato, a German-trained Japanese bacteriologist who practiced Koch's methodology was also engaged at the time in finding the causative agent of plague.[4] However, it was Yersin who actually linked plague with Yersinia pestis. Originally named Pasteurella pestis, the organism was renamed in 1967.
Originally three biovars of Y. pestis were thought to correspond to one of the historical pandemics of bubonic plague.[5] Biovar Antiqua is thought to correspond to the Plague of Justinian; it is not known whether this biovar also corresponds to earlier, smaller epidemics of bubonic plague, or whether these were even truly bubonic plague.[6] Biovar Mediaevalis is thought to correspond to the Black Death. Biovar Orientalis is thought to correspond to the Third Pandemic and the majority of modern outbreaks of plague. Y. pestis was transmitted by fleas infesting rats. However, recent MLST data has shown that in fact Yersinia pestis is clonal, so this somewhat overthrows the 'biovar' hypothesis.
Every year thousands of cases of plague are still reported to the World Health Organization, although with proper treatment the prognosis for victims is now much better. A five to sixfold increase in cases occurred in Asia during the time of the Vietnam war, possibly due to the disruption of ecosystems and closer proximity between people and animals. Plague also has a detrimental effect on mammals other than humans. In the United States of America, endangered animals such as the black-tailed prairie dog and the black-footed ferret are both under threat from the disease.[citation needed
نقلا عن ويكيبيديا

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-09-2009, 04:08 PM
Seasoning
Seasoning is the process of imparting flavor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavor) to, or improving the flavor of, food (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food)
Seasonings include herbs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbs), spices (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spices), which are themselves frequently referred to as "seasonings". However, Larousse Gastronomique (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larousse_Gastronomique) states that "to season and to flavour are not the same thing", insisting that seasoning includes a large or small amount of salt being added to a preparation.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seasoning#cite_note-larousse-1) Salt may be used to draw out water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water), or to magnify a natural flavor of a food making it richer or more delicate, depending on the dish. This type of procedure is akin to curing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curing_(food_preservation)). For instance, kosher salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosher_salt) (a coarser-grained salt) is rubbed into chicken (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicken), lamb (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamb_and_mutton), and beef (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beef) to tenderize the meat and improve flavor. Other seasonings like black pepper (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_pepper) and basil (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil) transfer some of their flavor to the food. A well
designed dish may combine seasonings that complement each other
http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p6178fb23b7.jpg (http://www.3deeel.com/upload/uploads/images/u22p6178fb23b7.jpg)
G

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
11-09-2009, 08:30 PM
علم الجينات Genetics
is the study of heredity and of the mechanisms by which genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next. Dysfunctional genes, or gene mutations, can cause illness, and can be passed from parents to children. In addition, some people have a genetic, or inherited, predisposition to certain diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mental disorders.
الحرف القادم C

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
11-10-2009, 03:38 PM
Communication
is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information).

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
11-10-2009, 03:56 PM
Campylobacter
Campylobacter is a genus of bacteria that are a major cause of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Infection occurs mainly following consumption of contaminated undercooked poultry or contaminated water.
The most common symptoms of campylobacter infection include diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. Symptoms usually start 2–5 days after infection, and last for 3–6 days.
Specific treatment is not usually necessary, except to replace electrolytes and water lost through diarrhoea, but antimicrobials may be needed to treat invasive cases and the carrier state. Severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, may follow campylobacter infection.

R الحرف القادم

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
11-15-2009, 12:14 PM
ٌRelapse prevention

Recovering from an eating disorder takes time. You did not develop your eating disorder over night and it will not go away that quickly either. It is important to remember that no one can recovery perfectly and there will be slips and relapses during the recovery process. This is normal and it is to be expected. The Relapse Prevention Plan is something that may be helpful to you in preventing a relapse

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-15-2009, 01:15 PM
Narcissism
The term narcissism refers to the personality trait of self-esteem (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Self-esteem), which includes the set of character traits (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Character_trait) concerned with self-image (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Self-image) or ego (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ego). The terms narcissism, narcissistic (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/narcissistic), and narcissist (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/narcissist) are often used as pejoratives (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pejorative), denoting vanity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vanity), conceit (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Conceit), egotism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Egotism) or simple selfishness (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Selfish). Applied to a social group (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Social_group), it is sometimes used to denote elitism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Elitism) or an indifference to the plight of others.
Freud (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sigmund_Freud) believed that some narcissism is an essential part of all of us from birth.[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-freud1-0) Andrew P. Morrison (http://www.suphof.com/w/index.php?title=Andrew_P._Morrison&action=edit&redlink=1) claims that, in adults, a reasonable amount of healthy narcissism allows the individual's perception of his needs to be balanced in relation to others.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-apm-1)
While most people possess some degree of narcissistic traits, higher levels of narcissism can be dysfunctional, and may be classified as pathologies (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Pathology) such as narcissistic personality disorder (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Narcissistic_personality_disorder) and malignant narcissism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Malignant_narcissism). Psychopathy (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Psychopathy), as defined by the PCL-R (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/PCL-R), also contains a narcissistic factor.[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2)
M

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
11-15-2009, 01:37 PM
Malignant tumors
are ambitious. Unlike benign tumors that generally stay put, malignant tumors have two goals in life: to survive and to conquer new territory.

So, if you have a malignant tumor in your colon, it's going to try to work its way through your colon. If successful, it will see where else it can go. This is called metastasizing.

In general, malignant tumors grow faster than benign tumors and are more likely to cause health problems.

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-16-2009, 12:36 PM
Selfishness
Selfishness denotes the precedence given in thought or deed to the self (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Self), i.e., self interest or self concern. It is the act of placing one's own needs or desires above the needs (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Need) or desires of others.
Psychologist and primatologist Frans de Waal (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Frans_de_Waal) takes issue with those who equate "selfishness" with "self-serving." He argues that "Selfishness implies the intention to serve oneself, hence knowledge of what one stands to gain from a particular behavior".[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0) (2009, 13).
Selfishness is the opposite of altruism (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Altruism) (selflessness).
The implications of selfishness have inspired divergent views within religious (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Religion), philosophical (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Philosophy), psychological (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Psychology), economic (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Economy) and evolutionary (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sociobiology) contexts.
S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
11-29-2009, 11:18 AM
sorbic acid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia <H3 id=siteSub>


Sometimes confused with ascorbic acid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ascorbic_acid), Vitamin C (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vitamin_C).
Sorbic acidhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Sorbic_acid.svg/200px-Sorbic_acid.svg.png (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Sorbic_acid.svg)




PropertiesMolecular formula (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Chemical_formula)C6H8O2Molar mass (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Molar_mass)112.12 g/molMelting point (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Melting_point)135 °C
Boiling point (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Boiling_point)228 °C (dec)
Acidity (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Acid_dissociation_constant) (pKa)4.76 at 25 °CY ) (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sorbic_acid&diff=cur&oldid=303933160)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Standard_state)Infobox references (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Wikipedia:Chemical_infobox#References)
Sorbic acid, or 2,4-hexadienoic acid, is a natural organic compound (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Organic_compound) used as a food preservative (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Preservative). It has the chemical formula C6H8O2. It was first isolated from the unripe berries of the Rowan (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Rowan) (Sorbus aucuparia), hence its name.
Sorbic acid and its mineral salts, such as sodium sorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sodium_sorbate), potassium sorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Potassium_sorbate) and calcium sorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Calcium_sorbate), are antimicrobial agents often used as preservatives in food and drinks to prevent the growth of mold, yeast and fungi. In general the salts are preferred over the acid form because they are more soluble in water. The optimal pH for the antimicrobial activity is below pH 6.5 and sorbates are generally used at concentrations of 0.025% to 0.10%. Adding sorbate salts to food will however raise the pH of the food slightly so the pH may need to be adjusted to assure safety.
Sorbic acid is also used as a bio descaling agent (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Descaling_agent).
Sorbic acid should not be confused with other chemically unrelated, but similarly named food additives sorbitol (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sorbitol), polysorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Polysorbate), and ascorbic acid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ascorbic_acid) (Vitamin C).


The E numbers (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/E_number#E200.26ndash.3BE299) are:

E200 Sorbic acid
E201 Sodium sorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sodium_sorbate)
E202 Potassium sorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Potassium_sorbate)
E203 Calcium sorbate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Calcium_sorbate)
Some molds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mold) (notably some Trichoderma (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Trichoderma) and Penicillium (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Penicillium) strains (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Strain_(biology))) and yeasts (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Yeast) are able to detoxify sorbates by decarboxylation (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Decarboxylation), producing trans (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Trans)-1,3-pentadiene (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/1,3-pentadiene). The pentadiene manifests as a typical odor of kerosene (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Kerosene) or petroleum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Petroleum). Other detoxification reactions include reduction to 4-hexenol (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hexenol) and 4-hexanoic acid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hexanoic_acid).[ (http://www.suphof.com/vb/showthread.php?t=286&page=12#cite_note-0)
1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)</H3>

D

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-04-2009, 06:55 PM
Dysentry
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the colon, that results in severe diarrhea (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diarrhea) containing mucus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Mucus) and/or blood (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood) in the feces (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Feces).[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0) If left untreated, dysentery can be fatal.
Symptoms and complications

Symptoms of dysentery include frequent passage of feces and, in some cases, vomiting of blood. The frequency of urges to defecate, the volume of feces passed, and the presence of mucus and/or blood depends on the parasite that is causing the disease. Once recovery starts, early refeeding is advocated, avoiding foods containing lactose due to temporary lactose intolerance (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactose_intolerance), which can persist for years.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-pmid359524-1)[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-pmid2664748-2)
Causes

Dysentery is usually caused by a bacterial (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacterial) or protozoan (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Protozoan) infection or infestation of parasitic worms (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Parasitic_worm)[4] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-3), but can also be caused by a chemical irritant or viral (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Virus) infection[5] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-4). The two most common causes are infection with a bacillus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacillus) of the Shigella (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Shigella) group, and infestation by an amoeba (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Amoeba), Entamoeba histolytica (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Entamoeba_histolytica)[6] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-5). When caused by a bacillus it is called bacillary dysentery (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacillary_dysentery), and when caused by an amoeba it is called amoebic dysentery (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Amoebic_dysentery).
Y

abdulla omer mosaab
12-04-2009, 09:03 PM
عمنا عبدالرحيم شكرا للمجهود ربنا يعطيك الصحة والعافية

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-05-2009, 07:05 PM
Yoghurt
Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Dairy_product) produced by bacterial (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacteria) fermentation (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fermentation_(food)) of milk. Fermentation of lactose (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactose) produces lactic acid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Lactic_acid), which acts on milk protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Protein) to give yoghurt its texture (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Texture_(food)) and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Soy_yogurt), a non-dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Soy_milk).
People have been making—and eating—yogurt for at least 4,500 years. Today it is a common food item throughout the world. A nutritious food with unique health benefits, it is nutritionally rich in protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Protein), calcium (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Calcium), riboflavin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Riboflavin), vitamin B6 (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vitamin_B6) and vitamin B12 (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Vitamin_B12).
http://up4.m5zn.com/9bjndthcm6y53q1w0kvpz47xgs82rf/2009/12/5/08/xtrocpete.jpg (http://www.tobikat.com)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-08-2009, 06:30 PM
Teania Saginata
From Wikipedia



Taenia saginatahttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Taenia_saginata_adult_5260_lores.jpg/250px-Taenia_saginata_adult_5260_lores.jpg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Taenia_saginata_adult_5260_lores.jpg)

Scientific classification (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Animalia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Animal)
Phylum:Platyhelminthes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Platyhelminthes)
Class:Cestoda (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cestoda)
Order:Cyclophyllidea (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cyclophyllidea)
Family:Taeniidae (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Taeniidae)
Genus:Taenia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Taenia_(tapeworm))
Species:T. saginata
Binomial name (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature)Taenia saginata
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Taenia_saginataD.JPG (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Taenia_saginataD.JPG) Taenia saginata proglottid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Proglottid) stained to show uterine branches. The pore on the side identifies T. saginata as a cyclophyllid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cyclophyllid) cestode (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cestode).


Taenia saginata, also known as Taeniarhynchus saginata or the Beef tapeworm, is a parasite (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Parasite) of both cattle (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Cattle) and humans (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Human), but which can only reproduce asexually in humans. Taenia saginata occurs where cattle are raised by infected humans maintaining poor hygiene, human feces (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Feces) is improperly disposed of, meat inspection programs are poor, and where meat is eaten without proper cooking. The disease is relatively common in Africa (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Africa), some parts of Eastern Europe (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Eastern_Europe), the Philippines (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Philippines), and Latin America (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Latin_America).[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-lange-0)
Taenia saginata are normally 3m to 5m in length, but it can become very large, over 20m in some situations. It does not have a rostellum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Rostellum) or scolex (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Scolex) armature. The scolex is composed of 4 powerful suckers. The segments are made up of mature and gravid proglottid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Proglottid). The mature proglottid contains the uterus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Uterus) (unbranched), ovary (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Ovary), genital (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Genital) pore, testes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Testes), and vitelline gland (http://www.suphof.com/w/index.php?title=Vitelline_gland&action=edit&redlink=1). In the gravid proglottid the uterus is branched and is filled with eggs. The gravid (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gravid) segments detach and are passed in the feces. Each of these segments can act like a worm. When they dry up the proglottid ruptures and the eggs are released. The egg can only infect cattle, the intermediate host (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Intermediate_host). Inside the cow's duodenum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Duodenum) the oncosphere (http://www.suphof.com/w/index.php?title=Oncosphere&action=edit&redlink=1) hatch with the help of the gastric and intestinal secretions and migrates through the blood to the muscle. There it develops into infective cysticerci (http://www.suphof.com/w/index.php?title=Cysticerci&action=edit&redlink=1).[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-schmidt-1)
Humans become infected when they eat beef that is not cooked fully. Prevention is easy. Cook beef until it is no longer pink inside because cysticerci die at 56 degrees Celsius. Also, if beef is frozen at -5 degrees Celsius it is considered to be safe to consume.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-schmidt-1)
This parasite is found anywhere where beef is eaten, even in countries like the United States where there are strict federal sanitation polices. In the U.S. the incidence of becoming infected is low, however, 25% of infected cattle are still sold.
A

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
12-08-2009, 07:10 PM
أنفلونزا الطيور Avian Flu
Avian flu (“bird flu”) is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus. The infection can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms in birds, ranging from mild illness, which may pass unnoticed, to a rapidly fatal disease that can cause severe epidemics
Avian influenza viruses do not normally infect humans. However, there have been instances of certain highly pathogenic strains causing severe respiratory disease in humans. In most cases, the people infected had been in close contact with infected poultry or with objects contaminated by their faeces. Nevertheless, there is concern that the virus could mutate to become more easily transmissible between humans, raising the possibility of an influenza pandemic
الحرف القادم U

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-09-2009, 06:22 PM
Undulent Fever
Brucellosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Brucella_spp.JPG/190px-Brucella_spp.JPG (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Brucella_spp.JPG)

Brucellosis, also called
Bang's disease, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever,[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-1) is a highly contagious zoonosis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Zoonosis) caused by ingestion of unsterilized (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sterilization_(microbiology))milk (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Milk) or meat (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Meat) from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. Transmission from human to human, for example through sexual contact or from mother to child, is exceedingly rare, but possible.[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-2) Brucella spp. are small, Gram-negative (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Gram-negative), non-motile, non-spore-forming rods, which function as facultative intracellular parasites that cause chronic disease, which usually persists for life. Symptoms include profuse sweating and joint and muscle pain. Brucellosis has been recognized in animals including humans since the 19th century.

R

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
12-10-2009, 03:13 PM
Relapse Prevention

If you don't want to slip, stay out of slippery places.
This information on relapse prevention & recovery tools is general in nature & is merely suggestive. It is based on the combined practical experience of various DRA members & represents some of the tools & techniques they have used as part of their dual recovery.


People in dual recovery learn to identify the warning signs that may lead to a lapse in their abstinence and take positive steps to stay clean and sober. At the same time, they follow a practical plan that addresses their emotional or psychiatric illness in a positive and constructive way. The quicker they learn to spot these signs and signals the sooner they can take positive action for their own well-being and dual recovery.

Many factors can lead to a relapse or flare-up to one or both of our no-fault illnesses. A flare-up of psychiatric symptoms can leave us more vulnerable to relapsing on drugs or alcohol. Drinking and drugging can lead to a flare-up of our psychiatric illness. Alcohol and drugs can also change the effects of psychiatric medications with unpredictable results. Maintaining abstinence allows us the freedom to grow as individuals and manage our no-fault illnesses in the healthiest possible way.

In chemical dependency, relapse is the act of taking that first drink or drug after being deliberately clean and sober for a time. It helps though to view relapse as a process that begins well in advance of that act. People who have relapsed can usually point back to certain things that they thought and did long before they actually drank or used that eventually caused the relapse. They may have become complacent in their program of recovery in some way or refused to ask for help when they needed it. Each persons relapse factors are unique to them, their diagnosis, and personal plan of recovery.

Relapse is usually caused by a combinations of factors. Some possible factors and warning signs might be:

Stopping medications on one’s own or against the advice of medical professionals

Hanging around old drinking haunts and drug using friends – slippery places
Isolating – not attending meetings – not using the telephone for support
Keeping alcohol, drugs, and paraphernalia around the house for any reason
Obsessive thinking about using drugs or drinking
Failing to follow ones treatment plan – quitting therapy – skipping doctors appointments
Feeling overconfident – that you no longer need support
Relationship difficulties – ongoing serious conflicts – a spouse who still uses
Setting unrealistic goals – perfectionism – being too hard on ourselves
Changes in eating and sleeping patterns, personal hygiene, or energy levels
Feeling overwhelmed – confused – useless – stressed out
Constant boredom – irritability – lack of routine and structure in life
Sudden changes in psychiatric symptoms
Dwelling on resentments and past hurts – anger – unresolved conflicts
Avoidance – refusing to deal with personal issues and other problems of daily living
Engaging in obsessive behaviors – workaholism – gambling – sexual excess and acting out
Major life changes – loss – grief – trauma – painful emotions – winning the lottery
Ignoring relapse warning signs and triggers


[/align]

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-11-2009, 02:13 PM
Nephron

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Nephronhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Gray1128.png/290px-Gray1128.png (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Gray1128.png)Nephron of the kidney without juxtaglomerular apparatus (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Juxtaglomerular_apparatus) (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Renal_Diuretics.gif)The physiology of the nephron (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Renal_physiology) is complex and is exploited by many drugs called diuretics (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Diuretic).Nephron (- nephros, meaning "kidney") is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Kidney). Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Water) and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood), reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Urine). A nephron eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood volume (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood_volume) and blood pressure (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood_pressure), controls levels of electrolytes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Electrolyte) and metabolites (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Metabolite), and regulates blood pH (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/PH). Its functions are vital to life and are regulated by the endocrine system (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Endocrine_system) by hormones (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Hormone) such as antidiuretic hormone (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Antidiuretic_hormone), aldosterone (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Aldosterone), and parathyroid hormone (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Parathyroid_hormone).[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0) In humans, a normal kidney contains 800,000 to one million nephrons.[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-guyton11-1)
N

نهى ابراهيم الجاك
12-12-2009, 07:19 PM
Neurology
هو العلم المختص بالجهاز العصبي والأمراض المتعلقة به
Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system
الحرف القادم Y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-13-2009, 06:32 PM
yaws

yaws (framboesia) Contagious skin disease found in the humid tropics. It is caused by a spirochete (Treponema pertenue), related to the organism causing syphilis (http://www.suphof.com/doc/1O142-syphilis.html). Yaws, however, is not a sexually transmitted disease (http://www.suphof.com/doc/1O142-sexuallytransmitteddiseas.html) (STD), but is transmitted by flies and by direct skin contact with the sores. It may go on to cause disfiguring bone lesions.

Pathophysiology


The major route of infection is through direct person-to-person contact. The treponemes associated with yaws are located primarily in the epidermis. The ulcerative skin lesions that develop early in the disease course are teeming with spirochetes, which can be transmitted via direct skin-to-skin contact and via breaks in the skin due to trauma, bites, or excoriations. Yaws, like syphilis (http://www.suphof.com/article/229461-overview), has been classified into the following 4 stages:

Primary stage: The initial yaws lesion develops at the inoculation site.
Secondary stage: Widespread dissemination of treponemes results in multiple skin lesions similar to the primary yaws lesion.
Latent stage: Symptoms are usually absent, but skin lesions can relapse.
Tertiary stage: Bone, joint, and soft tissue deformities may occur.
Another classification distinguishes early yaws from late yaws. Early yaws includes primary and secondary stages and is characterized by the presence of contagious skin lesions. Late yaws includes the tertiary stage, when lesions are not contagious
ٍs

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-13-2009, 06:43 PM
حاولوا اتجنبوا حرف ال y ياشباب بقدر الإمكان لندرته.

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-17-2009, 09:03 AM
Scarlet fever
is a disease caused by an erythrogenic exotoxin (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Exotoxin) released by Streptococcus pyogenes (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Streptococcus_pyogenes). The term scarlatina may be used interchangeably with scarlet fever, though it is commonly used to indicate the less acute form of scarlet fever that is often seen since the beginning of the twentieth century.[1] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-0)
It is characterized by:






verClassification and external resourceshttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Scharlach.JPG/190px-Scharlach.JPG (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Scharlach.JPG)

Sore throat (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sore_throat)
Fever (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Fever)
Bright red tongue with a "strawberry" appearance (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Strawberry_tongue)
Characteristic rash (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Rash), which:


is fine, red, and rough-textured; it blanches (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/blanch) upon pressure
appears 12–48 hours after the fever
generally starts on the chest, armpits, and behind the ears
spares the face (although some circumoral pallor is characteristic)
is worse in the skin folds (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Skin_fold). These are called Pastia lines (http://www.suphof.com/w/index.php?title=Pastia_lines&action=edit&redlink=1) (where the rash runs together in the arm pits and groins) appear and can persist after the rash is gone
may spread to cover the uvula (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Palatine_uvula).


The rash begins to fade three to four days after onset and desquamation (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Desquamation) (peeling) begins. "This phase begins with flakes peeling from the face. Peeling from the palms and around the fingers occurs about a week later."[2] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Dyne-1) Peeling also occurs in axilla, groin, and tips of the fingers and toes.[3] (http://www.suphof.com/vb/#cite_note-Balentine-2)
Diagnosis of scarlet fever is clinical. The blood test shows marked leukocytosis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Leukocytosis) with neutrophilia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Neutrophilia) and conservated or increased eosinophils, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Erythrocyte_sedimentation_rate) (ESR) and C-reactive protein (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/C-reactive_protein) (CRP), and elevation of antistreptolysin O titer. Blood culture (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Blood_culture) is rarely positive, but the streptococci can usually be demonstrated in throat culture. The complications of scarlet fever include septic complications due to spread of streptococcus in blood and immune-mediated complications due to an aberrant immune response. Septic complications, today rare, include ear and sinus infection, streptococcal pneumonia (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Bacterial_pneumonia), empyema thoracis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Empyema), meningitis and full-blown sepsis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Sepsis), upon which the condition may be called malignant scarlet fever.
Immune complications include acute glomerulonephritis (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Glomerulonephritis), rheumatic fever (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Rheumatic_fever) and erythema nodosum (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Erythema_nodosum). The secondary scarlatinous disease, or secondary malignant syndrome of scarlet fever, includes renewed fever, renewed angina, septic ear, nose, and throat (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/Otolaryngology) complications and kidney infection or rheumatic fever and is seen around the eighteenth day of untreated scarlet fever.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Scarlet_fever_2.jpg/150px-Scarlet_fever_2.jpg (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Scarlet_fever_2.jpg) http://www.suphof.com/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.suphof.com/wiki/File:Scarlet_fever_2.jpg)
Scarlet Fever's pebbly, dry rash.




R

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-26-2009, 10:58 AM
Rabies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Rabieshttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Dog_with_rabies.jpg/190px-Dog_with_rabies.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dog_with_rabies.jpg)
Dog with rabies virusRabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English). From Latin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language): rabies) is a viral (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_(biology))neuroinvasive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotropic_virus) disease that causes acute encephalitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encephalitis) (inflammation of the brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain)) in warm-blooded animals. It is zoonotic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoonotic) (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal but occasionally by other forms of contact. Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-exposure_prophylaxis) is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. It is a significant killer of livestock in some countries.
The rabies virus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_virus) travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral_nervous_system). The incubation period (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incubation_period) of the disease depends on how far the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system), usually taking a few months.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies#cite_note-isbn0-7216-0187-1-0) Once the infection reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is practically untreatable and usually fatal within days.
Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaise), headache and fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever), later progressing to more serious ones, including acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression and inability to swallow water. Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mania) and lethargy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lethargy), followed by coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies#cite_note-isbn0-7216-0187-1-0) 97% of human rabies cases come from dog bites.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies#cite_note-1) In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic
dogs as reservoirs of rabies.

Symptoms

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Rabies_patient.jpg/180px-Rabies_patient.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rabies_patient.jpg)
Patient with rabies, 1959


The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flu-like_symptoms) is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paralysis), cerebral dysfunction (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cerebral_dysfunction&action=edit&redlink=1), anxiety (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anxiety), insomnia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insomnia), confusion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confusion), agitation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agitation_(emotion)), abnormal behavior, paranoia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranoia), terror, hallucinations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallucination), progressing to delirium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delirium).[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies#cite_note-6) The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in “hydrophobia”, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. The disease itself was also once commonly known as hydrophobia (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydrophobia) (or aquaphobia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaphobia)), from this characteristic symptom.
Death almost invariably results two to ten days after the first symptoms; the few humans who are known to have survived the disease were all left with severe brain damage (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_damage), with one recorded exception purportedly resulting from implementation of the Milwaukee protocol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milwaukee_protocol).[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies#cite_note-7) It is neurotropic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotropic_virus) in nature
S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
12-28-2009, 09:30 AM
Septic tank

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Septic_tank_not_in_ground.jpg/180px-Septic_tank_not_in_ground.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Septic_tank_not_in_ground.jpg) [/URL]
A septic tank before installation


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Septic_tank.jpg/180px-Septic_tank.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Septic_tank_not_in_ground.jpg)
The same tank partially installed in the ground


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Septic_tank.jpg)
Septic tank and septic drain field (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Landpeople_s_cc8.PNG)


A septic tank, the key component of the septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewage_treatment) system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or private corporations. (Other components, typically mandated and/or restricted by local governments, optionally include pumps, alarms, sand filters (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_filter), and clarified liquid effluent disposal means such as a septic drain field (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septic_drain_field), ponds, natural stone fibre filter plants or peat moss (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphagnum) beds.) Septic systems are a type of On-Site Sewage Facility (OSSF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSSF)). In North America (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_America) approximately 25% of the population relies on septic tanks; this can include suburbs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suburbs) and small towns as well as rural (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rural) areas (Indianapolis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indianapolis) is an example of a large city where many of the city's neighborhoods are still on separate septic systems). In Europe they are generally limited to rural areas only.
The term "septic" refers to the anaerobic bacterial (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_digestion) environment that develops in the tank and which decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank. Septic tanks can be coupled with other on-site wastewater treatment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onsite_sewage_facility) units such as biofilters (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofilters) or aerobic systems involving artificial forced aeration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeration).[U][1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septic_tank#cite_note-0)
Periodic preventive maintenance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preventive_maintenance) is required to remove the irreducible solids which settle and gradually fill the tank, reducing its efficiency. In most jurisdictions this maintenance is required by law, yet often not enforced. Those who ignore the requirement will eventually be faced with extremely costly repairs when solids escape the tank and destroy the clarified liquid effluent disposal means. A properly maintained system, on the other hand, can last for decades and possibly a lifetime.
K (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septic_tank#See_also)

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
12-31-2009, 12:31 PM
Klebsiella Infections

The genus Klebsiella belongs to the tribe Klebsiellae, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The organisms are named after Edwin Klebs, a 19th century German microbiologist. Klebsiellae are nonmotile, rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide capsule. This capsule encases the entire cell surface, accounts for the large appearance of the organism on gram stain, and provides resistance against many host defense mechanisms.

Members of the Klebsiella genus typically express 2 types of antigens on their cell surface. The first is a lipopolysaccharide (O antigen); the other is a capsular polysaccharide (K antigen). Both of these antigens contribute to pathogenicity. About 77 K antigens and 9 O antigens exist. The structural variability of these antigens forms the basis for classification into various serotypes. The virulence of all serotypes appears to be similar.

The genus was originally divided into 3 main species based on biochemical reactions. Today, 7 species with demonstrated similarities in DNA homology are known. These are (1) Klebsiella pneumoniae, (2) Klebsiella ozaenae, (3) Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, (4) Klebsiella oxytoca, (5) Klebsiella planticola, (6) Klebsiella terrigena, and (7) Klebsiella ornithinolytica. K pneumoniae is the most medically important species of the group. K oxytoca and K rhinoscleromatis have also been demonstrated in human clinical specimens. In recent years, klebsiellae have become important pathogens in nosocomial infections.1




This scanning electron micrograph (SEM) reveals some of the ultrastructural morphologic features of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Courtesy of CDC/Janice Carr.
[ CLOSE WINDOW ]This scanning electron micrograph (SEM) reveals some of the ultrastructural morphologic features of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Courtesy of CDC/Janice Carr.


Pathophysiology
Host defense against bacterial invasion depends on phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear granulocytes and the bactericidal effect of serum, mediated in large part by complement proteins. Both classic-pathway and alternate-pathway complement activation have been described, but the latter, which does not require the presence of immunoglobulins directed against bacterial antigens, appears to be the more active pathway in K pneumoniae infections.

Recent data from preclinical studies suggest a role for neutrophil myeloperoxidase and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in host defense against K pneumoniae infection. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase is thought to mediate oxidative inactivation of elastase, an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of various tissue-destroying diseases. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein facilitates transfer of bacterial cell wall components to inflammatory cells. Investigators showed higher rates of infection in experimental mice deficient in the genes that control expression of these 2 agents.

The bacteria overcome innate host immunity through several means. They possess a polysaccharide capsule, which is the main determinant of their pathogenicity. The capsule is composed of complex acidic polysaccharides. Its massive layer protects the bacterium from phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear granulocytes. In addition, the capsule prevents bacterial death caused by bactericidal serum factors. This is accomplished mainly by inhibiting the activation or uptake of complement components, especially C3b. The bacteria also produce multiple adhesins. These may be fimbrial or nonfimbrial, each with distinct receptor specificity. These help the microorganism to adhere to host cells, which is critical to the infectious process.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are another bacterial pathogenicity factor. They are able to activate complement, which causes selective deposition of C3b onto LPS molecules at sites distant from the bacterial cell membrane. This inhibits the formation of the membrane attack complex (C5b-C9), which prevents membrane damage and bacterial cell death.

Availability of iron increases host susceptibility to K pneumoniae infection. Bacteria are able to compete effectively for iron bound to host proteins because of the secretion of high-affinity, low molecular weight iron chelators known as siderophores. This is necessary because most host iron is bound to intracellular and extracellular proteins. In order to deprive bacteria of iron, the host also secretes iron-binding proteins.

khalidfadleallahmohammed
12-31-2009, 01:23 PM
amino acidودي معناها الاحماض الامينية وهي المكونات الاساسية للبروتينات

khalidfadleallahmohammed
12-31-2009, 01:40 PM
اذن المصطلح الجاي بادي بالحرف d

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-03-2010, 01:47 PM
Dengue fever

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Dengue virushttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Dengue.jpg/180px-Dengue.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dengue.jpg)A TEM (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_electron_microscopy) micrograph (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micrograph) showing Dengue virus virions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virion) (the cluster of dark dots near the center).Virus classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_classification)Group:Group IV ((+)ssRNA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive-sense_ssRNA_virus))Family:Flaviviridae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flaviviridae)
Genus:Flavivirus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavivirus)
Species:Dengue virus
Dengue fever (pronounced dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever)diseases (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_disease) which occur in the tropics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropics), can be life-threatening, and are caused by four closely related virus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus)serotypes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serotype) of the genus Flavivirus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavivirus), family Flaviviridae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flaviviridae).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever#cite_note-0) It is also known as breakbone fever. It occurs widely in the tropics, including northern Argentina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina), northern Australia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia), the entirety of Bangladesh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh), Barbados (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados), Bolivia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivia)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever#cite_note-Dengue_fever_outbreak_in_Bolivia-1), Brazil (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil), Cambodia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambodia), Costa Rica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Costa_Rica), Dominican Republic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominican_Republic), Guatemala (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guatemala), Guyana (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guyana), Honduras (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honduras), India (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India), Indonesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia), Jamaica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamaica), Laos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laos), Malaysia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysia), Mexico (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico), Pakistan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan), Panama (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama), Paraguay (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraguay)[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever#cite_note-2), Philippines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippines), Puerto Rico (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto_Rico), Samoa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samoa)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever#cite_note-3), Singapore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore), Sri Lanka (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka), Suriname (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suriname), Taiwan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan), Thailand (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thailand), Trinidad (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinidad), Venezuela (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venezuela) and Vietnam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam), and increasingly in southern China (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China)[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever#cite_note-Zhuhai_reports_outbreak_of_dengue_fever-4). Unlike malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria), dengue is just as prevalent in the urban districts of its range as in rural areas. Each serotype (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serotype) is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemic) caused by multiple serotypes (hyperendemicity) can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti) or more rarely the Aedes albopictus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_albopictus) mosquito (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito), which feed during the day.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever#cite_note-5)
The WHO (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WHO) says some 2.5 billion people, two fifths of the world's population, are now at risk from dengue and estimates that there may be 50 million cases of dengue infection worldwide every year. The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries
R

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-06-2010, 04:18 PM
Rennet
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Rennet ( is a natural complex of enzymes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme) produced in any mammalian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal) stomach (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stomach) to digest the mother's milk, and is often used in the production of cheese (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheese). Rennet contains many enzymes, including a proteolytic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteolytic) enzyme (protease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protease)) that coagulates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coagulation_(milk)) the milk, causing it to separate into solids (curds (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curds)) and liquid (whey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whey)). The active enzyme (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme) in rennet is called chymosin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chymosin) or rennin (EC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EC_number) 3.4.23.4 (http://www.expasy.org/cgi-bin/nicezyme.pl?3.4.23.4)) but there are also other important enzymes in it, e.g., pepsin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepsin) or lipase (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipase). There are non-animal sources for rennet that are suitable for vegetarian consumption.like mecrobial rennet,vegetables rennet,acid co-ogulation,genetically produced rennet,pork extracted rennet is prohibted by muslims

T

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-07-2010, 05:23 PM
Tuna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Tunahttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Tuna.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tuna.jpg)Yellowfin tuna (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellowfin_tuna), Thunnus albacaresScientific classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Animalia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal)
Phylum:Chordata (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chordate)
Class:Actinopterygii (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinopterygii)
Order:Perciformes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perciformes)
Family:Scombridae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scombridae)
Genus:Thunnus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunnus)
South, 1845Species (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species)See text.
Tuna are carnivorous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnivorous)fish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish) from the family Scombridae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scombridae), mostly in the genus Thunnus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunnus). Tuna are fast swimmers—they have been clocked at 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph)—and include several warm-blooded (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warm-blooded) species. Unlike most fish, which have white flesh, tuna flesh is pink to dark red, which could explain their odd nick-name, "rose of the sea." The red coloring comes from tuna muscle tissue's greater quantities of myoglobin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myoglobin), an oxygen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen)-binding molecule. Some of the larger species, such as the bluefin tuna (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluefin_tuna), can raise their blood temperature above water temperature through muscular activity. This ability enables them to live in cooler waters and to survive in a wide range of ocean environments.
While many stocks are managed sustainably, it is widely accepted that bluefin have been severely overfished (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overfishing), with some stocks at risk of collapse.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuna#cite_note-0) According to the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (a global, non-profit partnership between the tuna industry, scientists, and the World Wide Fund for Nature (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Fund_for_Nature)), Indian Ocean yellowfin tuna, Pacific Ocean (eastern & western) bigeye tuna, and North Atlantic albacore tuna are all overfished. In April 2009 all stocks of skipjack tuna—which makes up roughly 60 percent of all tuna
A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-09-2010, 07:16 AM
Aedes aegypti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Aedes aegyptihttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Aedes_aegypti_CDC-Gathany.jpg/180px-Aedes_aegypti_CDC-Gathany.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aedes_aegypti_CDC-Gathany.jpg)Scientific classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Animalia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal)
Phylum:Arthropoda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod)
Class:Insecta (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect)
Order:Diptera (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly)
Family:Culicidae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culicidae)
Genus:Aedes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes)
Subgenus:Stegomyia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stegomyia)
Species:Ae. aegypti
Binomial name (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature)Aedes aegypti
(Linnaeus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus), 1762)The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti, =Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti), is a mosquito (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito) that can spread the dengue fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever), Chikungunya (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikungunya) and yellow fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_fever) viruses, and other diseases. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings on legs and a marking of the form of a lyre (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyre) on the thorax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorax). The mosquito originated from Africa[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti#cite_note-0) but is now found in the tropics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropics) worldwide[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti#cite_note-1).



[ Spread of disease and prevention

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Aedes_aegypti_larva.jpg/250px-Aedes_aegypti_larva.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aedes_aegypti_larva.jpg) [/URL]
Larva (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aedes_aegypti_larva.jpg) of Aedes aegypti


The CDC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centers_for_Disease_Control_and_Prevention) traveler's page on preventing dengue fever suggests using mosquito repellents (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito_repellent) that contain DEET (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DEET) (N, N-diethylmetatoluamide) (between 20% to 30% concentration, but not more). It also suggests the following:

Although it may feed at any time, the mosquito bites humans only between a few hours after dawn (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawn) until an hour or so after sunset.
The mosquito's preferred breeding areas are in areas of stagnant water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stagnant_water), such as flower vases, uncovered barrels, buckets, and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet tanks, as they allow the mosquitos to breed in the residence. Research has shown that certain chemicals emanating from bacteria in water containers stimulate the female mosquitoes to lay their eggs. They are particularly motivated to lay eggs in water containers that have the correct amounts of specific fatty acids associated with bacteria involved in the degradation of leaves and other organic matter in water. The chemicals associated with the microbial stew are far more stimulating to discerning female mosquitoes than plain water, for example, or filtered water in which the bacteria once lived.[U][3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti#cite_note-2)
Wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants when outdoors during the day and evening.
Spray permethrin or DEET repellents on clothing, as mosquitos may bite through thin clothing.
Use mosquito netting over the bed if the bedroom is not air conditioned or screened. For additional protection, treat the mosquito netting with the insecticide permethrin.
Spray permethrin or a similar insecticide in the bedroom before retiring.
Aedes aegypti's eggs can be viable for over a year in a dry state, which allows the mosquito to re-emerge after a cold winter or dry spell[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti#cite_note-3).


] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti#cite_note-5)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-10-2010, 06:41 PM
Immunity

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Immunity is a biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection), disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease), or other unwanted biological invasion. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system) adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity.
Adaptive immunity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_immunity) is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Naturally acquired immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificially acquired immunity develops only through deliberate actions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_induction_of_immunity) such as vaccination. Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether immunity is induced in the host or passively transferred from a immune host. Passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, and is short lived, usually lasts only a few months, whereas active immunity is induced in the host itself by antigen, and lasts much longer, sometimes life-long. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity.



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Immunity.png/600px-Immunity.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Immunity.png)

A further subdivision of adaptive immunity is characterized by the cells involved; humoral immunity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humoral_immunity) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, whereas the protection provided by cell mediated immunity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_mediated_immunity) involves T-lymphocytes alone. Humoral immunity is active when the organism generates its own antibodies, and passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals. Similarly, cell mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ own T-cells are stimulated and passive when T cells come from another organism

Y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-12-2010, 06:08 PM
Yew poisoning



Poisoning (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/poisoning.html)


The Yew plant is a shrub with evergreen-like leaves. Yew poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant
http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/gallery/files/7/1/0/4/Yew-Tree-Berries_thumb.jpg
Yew tree

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-13-2010, 07:10 PM
Gonorrhea
: A sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=13954)Neisseria (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4517) gonorrhoea. Although gonorrhea is known primarily as a sexually transmitted infection (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5472) (STI), it is not exclusively so, but can also be transmitted to the newborn during the birthing process. Contrary to popular belief, gonorrhea cannot be transmitted from toilet seats or door handles. The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea requires very specific conditions to grow and to reproduce. It cannot live outside the body for more than a few minutes at most, nor can it live on the skin of the hands, arms, or legs. It survives only on moist surfaces within the body and is found most commonly in the vagina (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5951) and, especially the cervix (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2686). The bacterium can also live in the urethra (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5907). Gonorrhea can even exist in the back of the throat (from oral-genital contact) and in the rectum (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5253).

Gonorrhea is often silent in women. Over half of infected women have no symptoms in the early stages of gonorrheal infection. If symptoms do occur, there may be burning on urination, frequent urination, yellowish vaginal discharge (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3010), redness of the genitals, swelling of the genitals, and a burning or itching (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4060) of the vaginal area.
Left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to a severe painful pelvic infection with inflammation (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3979) of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, a form of pelvic inflammatory disease (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4898), or PID. Symptoms of PID include fever (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3425), pelvic cramping, abdominal pain (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1908), and pain with intercourse. PID can lead to difficulty in becoming pregnant (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10695) or even sterility. The complications of gonorrhea can include inflammation (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3979) of the heart valves (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6417), arthritis (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7776), and eye (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7021) infections. If the infection is severe enough, a localized area of infection and pus (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5140) (an abscess (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2097)) forms, and major surgery may be necessary and even life-saving. Gonorrheal infection in people with diminished immune function, such as from chemotherapy or AIDS, can also be extremely serious.
A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-15-2010, 02:23 PM
Acetone
A chemical that is formed when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. The formation of acetone means that cells lack insulin (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6098) or cannot effectively use available insulin (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6098) to burn glucose for energy. Acetone passes through the body into the urine as one of the so-called ketone bodies. Acetone is highly volatile. The breath of someone with a great deal of acetone in the body smells fruity and is called "acetone breath."

Hibat
01-17-2010, 11:21 AM
Eclampsia


تسمم الحمل


an acute and life-threatening complication of pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy), is characterized by the appearance of tonic-clonic seizures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonic-clonic_seizure), usually in a patient who had developed preeclampsia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preeclampsia). (Preeclampsia and eclampsia are collectively called Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and toxemia of pregnancy.)

تسمم الحمل، أعراضه:



(انتفاخ نتيجة تجمع السوائل) في اليدين والوجه والرجلين.
بظهور البروتين في البول (: Proteinuria)، وتكون كمية البروتين في البول لمدة 24 ساعة 300 مليجرام.
بعدم كفاءة عمل الكلى حيث يكون مستوى الكرياتينين في الدم (( Creatinine)) أعلى من 90 مليمول في ليتر الدم.
بارتفاع إنزيمات الكبد في الدم الترانزأمينيز Transaminases، أو ألم في الناحية اليمنى العلوية من البطن.
بأعراض عصبية مثل اضطرابات في البصر، فرط المنعكسات الوترية: Hyperreflexia).
بنقص الصفيحات في الدم : Thrombocytopenia).
بانحلال الدم (http://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A7%D9% 84_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%85&action=edit&redlink=1) (( Haemolysis)).
بالتخثر المنتشر داخل الأوعية الدموية(Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy).
نقص نمو الجنين.


أهمية هذا النوع هو إمكانية حدوث نوبات تشنجية للحامل (صرع) وتُسمى هذه الحالة بالارتعاج (Eclampsia)، و يختفي ارتفاع ضغط الدم خلال 3 شهور بعد الولادة.


الحرف القادم:

ِA




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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-17-2010, 12:59 PM
شكرا هبات على المشاركة والله هذا البوست أنا بعتبره مهم جدا بالنسبة لضباط الصحة لمراجعة الكثير من المعلومات والمناهج العلمية الهامة والمطلوب فقط الصبر على الإطلاع وليكونوا دائما مع المعلومة الصحية التي هي سلاحهم في حياتهم العملية إنشاء الله .

Abortion
is the termination of a pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy_(mammals)) by the removal or expulsion from the uterus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterus) of a fetus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetus) or embryo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embryo), resulting in or caused by its death.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion#cite_note-0) An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complication_(medicine)) during pregnancy or can be induced, in humans and other species. In the context of human pregnancies, an abortion induced to preserve the health of the gravida (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravidity) (pregnant female) is termed a therapeutic abortion, while an abortion induced for any other reason is termed an elective abortion. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy), while spontaneous abortions are usually termed miscarriages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscarriage).
Abortion has a long history (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_abortion) and has been induced by various methods including herbal abortifacients (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortifacient), the use of sharpened tools, physical trauma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_trauma) and other traditional methods (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_medicine). Contemporary medicine utilizes medications (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medication) and surgical procedures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgery) to induce abortion. The legality (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_law), prevalence, and cultural views on abortion vary substantially around the world. In many parts of the world there is prominent and divisive public controversy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_debate) over the ethical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_aspects_of_abortion) and legal issues of abortion. Abortion and abortion-related issues feature prominently in the national politics in many nations, often involving the opposing "pro-life (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-life)" and "pro-choice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-choice)" worldwide social movements. Incidence of abortion has declined worldwide, as access to family planning education and contraceptive services has increased. Abortion incidence in the United States declined 8% from 1996 to 2003.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion#cite_note-worldtrends-1)



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Human_Embryo_-_Approximately_8_weeks_estimated_gestational_age.j pg/180px-Human_Embryo_-_Approximately_8_weeks_estimated_gestational_age.j pg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Embryo_-_Approximately_8_weeks_estimated_gestational_age.j pg)

Hibat
01-17-2010, 03:13 PM
Nephrotic Syndrome






Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is an uncommon disorder that affects the kidneys and has an incidence of about 2 cases per 100,000 children. The main features of NS are proteinuria (losing protein in the urine), hypoproteinemia and/or hypoalbuminemia (a low protein and/or albumin level in the blood), hyperlipidemia (a high lipid level in the blood), and edema (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the skin). Both proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia must be present for a diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. Edema is the main symptom of NS. Many children with this disorder are found to have swelling around one or both eyes (periorbital edema) that is much worse in the morning when they first wake up. The swelling will usually improve or even disappear by the end of the day. Since periorbital edema is frequently seen in children with allergies or infection of the eyes, NS is commonly misdiagnosed as once of these more common disorders. Unlike allergies or infections, with NS, there will be no signs of inflammation, such as redness or discharge.

With time, the edema or swelling is found in other parts of the body, especially the legs where pitting edema is found (if you press on the area that is swollen, it will leave an indentation or pit in the skin). Your child will then begin to gain weight, and fluid will begin to collect in other areas of the body, such as the lungs (forming pleural effusions), scrotum, and abdomen (ascites). He may also urinate less.

If your pediatrician suspects that your child has NS, a simple urine test can help to confirm the diagnosis. A dipstick test of the urine that can be done in most doctor's offices will show protein in the urine (usually at least 1+ and most commonly greater than or equal to 3+). Other tests that will be done if your child is found to be losing protein in his urine may include blood tests to check the function of the kidneys (creatinine and BUN), the level of protein and albumin, a complete blood count and a 24 hour collection of urine to see exactly how much protein is being lost.

Most children (especially if they are between 1 and 7 years old) with NS will have minimal change or minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome. In addition to the typical findings of NS, children with minimal lesion NS will have otherwise normal kidney function, a normal blood pressure and an absence of blood in the urine. Children suspected of having this type of NS can usually begin treatment without a renal biopsy.

The main treatment of NS is with high does of steroids (prednisone) for two to four weeks to induce remission, which is a decrease in the amount of protein in the urine to less than 1+. The dose of prednisone is then gradually decreased over the next 3-6 months. Although most children (over 90%) with minimal lesion NS will respond to treatment with prednisone (steroid responsive), some do not respond and are steroid resistant and may need to undergo a renal biopsy.

Once in remission, children often have relapses, in which they begin to lose protein again and develop edema. These relapses are again treated with a high dose of prednisone, although usually for only a short time. Some of these children will be steroid dependent, with quick relapses once the dose of steroids are decreased.

For children who are steroid dependent, who have frequent relapses, or who do not go into remission, may need to undergo a renal biopsy and use of other medications (usually chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide).

Other supportive treatments for children with NS can include dietary salt restriction (usually by a no added salt diet), and sometimes for severe edema, albumin is given through an IV and it is followed by the use of a diuretic, such as Lasix. Some children are also treated by restricting how much fluid they can drink each day.

Children with NS are at increased risk of bacterial infections, and they should be quickly evaluated when they have a fever. They may also benefit from getting a vaccine to protect them against the Pneumococcus bacteria (either Prevnar (http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/welcome/immunizations/pneumococcus.html) or Pneumovax for older children). Because of the risk of serious illness, you should call your doctor immediately if your child with NS is exposed to someone with chicken pox, especially if he is currently taking steroids.

For children who have relapses, they may continue until the second decade of life, when the NS may resolve without furthur problems.

Other causes of NS, besides minimal lesion NS, are more common in children that are less than 12 months old, or greater than 7 years old. They include mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, focal global glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Children with NS that are not suspected of having minimal change NS may need to undergo a renal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis before treatment is begun.

Most children with nephrotic syndrome should be treated by a Pediatric Nephrologist.



الحرف القادم:
E



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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-18-2010, 02:11 PM
Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a common chronic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_(medicine)) neurological disorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurological_disorder) characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seizure).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-PMID8330566-0)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-PMID11580774-1) These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-Fisher2005-2) About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, with almost 90% of these people being in developing countries.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-World_Health_Organization-3) Epilepsy is more likely to occur in young children, or people over the age of 65 years, however it can occur at any time.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-4) Epilepsy is usually controlled, but cannot be cured with medication, although surgery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgery) may be considered in difficult cases. However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-Cascino_GD_1994_1199.E2.80.931211-5)[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy#cite_note-Engel_J_Jr_1996_647.E2.80.93652-6) Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong – some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood. Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder, but rather as syndromic with vastly divergent symptoms but all involving episodic abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Hibat
01-18-2010, 02:56 PM
Epilepsy







حاولوا اتجنبوا حرف ال y ياشباب بقدر الإمكان لندرته.


يا عبدالرحيم تعبتني بي حرف الـ Y دة







Young People Sexual Health

الصحة الجنسية للشباب


It is a new terminology which reflects the sexual health for youth.


It consist of the following:.


YPSH does NOT promote sex - it is making information available in order for youth to make more informed, and safer, choices.
YPSH will NOT preach or lecture youth on sex.
There is NOTHING wrong with not wanting sex at all - and it's the best way to stay safe.
Education, good information and decent opportunities may be the best way to reduce STIs and unwanted pregnancy for youth.




الحرف القادم


H




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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-19-2010, 12:20 PM
Hepatitis
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease) affecting the liver (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver), caused by the hepatitis C virus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_C_virus) (HCV).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_C#cite_note-Sherris-0) The infection is often asymptomatic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asymptomatic), but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrosis)), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cirrhosis)) which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure or other complications of cirrhosis, including liver cancer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatocellular_carcinoma).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_C#cite_note-Sherris-0)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread by blood-to-blood contact. Most people have few, if any symptoms after the initial infection, yet the virus persists in the liver in about 85% of those infected. Persistent infection can be treated with medication (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medication), peginterferon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peginterferon) and ribavirin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribavirin) being the standard-of-care therapy. 51% are cured overall. Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_transplant), and the virus universally recurs after transplantation.
An estimated 270-300 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is a strictly human disease. It cannot be contracted from or given to any other animal. Chimpanzees can be infected with the virus in the laboratory, but do not develop the disease, which has made research more difficult. No vaccine against hepatitis C is available. The existence of hepatitis C (originally "non-A non-B hepatitis") was postulated in the 1970s and proved conclusively in 1989. It is one of five known hepatitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis) viruses: A (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_A), B (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_B), C, D (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_D), and E (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_E)

Hibat
01-19-2010, 01:19 PM
Schistosomiasis



Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Larval forms of the parasites, which are released by freshwater snails, penetrate the skin of people in the water.

In the body, the larvae develop into adult schistosomes, which live in the blood vessels. The females release eggs, some of which are passed out of the body in the urine or faeces. Others are trapped in body tissues, causing an immune reaction.

In urinary schistosomiasis, there is progressive damage to the bladder, ureters and kidneys. In intestinal schistosomiasis, there is progressive enlargement of the liver and spleen, intestinal damage, and hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels.

Control of schistosomiasis is based on drug treatment, snail control, improved sanitation and health education.




الحرف القادم
ٍS




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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-19-2010, 04:26 PM
Hibat (http://www.suphof.com/vb/member.php?u=38)
http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis, or... (http://www.suphof.com/vb/showthread.php?p=7260&highlight=Schistosoma#post7260)

Schistosomiasis



Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Larval forms of the parasites, which are released by freshwater...

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شستوسوماسيس(البلهارسيا) Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Larval forms of the parasites, which are...


المعلومة مكررة يا هبات مرتين إنتي كتبتي فيها وكذلك نهى الجاك أرجو استعمال خاصية البحث أعلى الصفحة للتاكد من عدم تكرار المواضيع
لذلك يظل حرف (S) قائم

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-19-2010, 04:32 PM
Saccharin
is an artificial sweetener (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_sweetener). The basic substance, benzoic sulfimide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzoic_sulfimide), has effectively no food energy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy) and is much sweeter than sucrose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucrose), but has an unpleasant bitter or metallic aftertaste (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aftertaste), especially at high concentrations. In countries where saccharin is allowed as a food additive, it is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste.




Properties

Saccharin is unstable when heated but it does not react chemically with other food ingredients. As such, it stores well. Blends of saccharin with other sweeteners are often used to compensate for each sweetener's weaknesses and faults. A 10:1 cyclamate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclamate):saccharin blend is common in countries where both these sweeteners are legal; in this blend, each sweetener masks the other's off-taste. Saccharin is often used together with aspartame (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspartame) in diet soda, so that some sweetness remains should the fountain syrup be stored beyond aspartame's relatively short shelf life. Saccharin is believed to be an important discovery, especially for diabetics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus), as it goes directly through the human digestive system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestive_system) without being digested. Although saccharin thus has no food energy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy), it can trigger the release of insulin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin) in humans and rats, apparently as a result of its taste.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharin#cite_note-2) [4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharin#cite_note-3)[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharin#cite_note-4)
In its acid form, saccharin is not water-soluble. The form used as an artificial sweetener is usually its sodium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium) salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt). The calcium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium) salt is also sometimes used, especially by people restricting their dietary sodium intake. Both salts are highly water-soluble: 0.67 grams per milliliter water at room temperature.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharin#cite_note-5)[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharin#cite_note-6)

Hibat
01-20-2010, 10:37 AM
Non-governmental organization NGO


is a term that has become widely accepted as referring to a legally constituted, non- governmental organization created by natural or legal persons with no participation or representation of any government. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status and excludes government representatives from membership in the organization. Unlike the term intergovernmental organization (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intergovernmental_organization), "non-governmental organization" is a term in general use but is not a legal definition. In many jurisdictions these types of organization are defined as "civil society organizations" or referred to by other names.


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Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
01-20-2010, 11:29 AM
Obesity
has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight - at least 300 million of them clinically obese - and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Often coexisting in developing countries with under-nutrition, obesity is a complex condition, with serious social and psychological dimensions, affecting virtually all ages and socioeconomic groups.

Increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to obesity rates that have risen three-fold or more since 1980 in some areas of North America, the United Kingdom, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, Australasia and China.The obesity epidemic is not restricted to industrialized societies; this increase is often faster in developing countries than in the developed world.

Obesity and overweight pose a major risk for serious diet-related chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, and certain forms of cancer. The health consequences range from increased risk of premature death, to serious chronic conditions that reduce the overall quality of life. Of especial concern is the increasing incidence of child obesity. الحرف القادم Y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-20-2010, 01:23 PM
Yeast vaginitis (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8120)
Infection of the vagina by a fungus known as
Candida, characteristically causing itching, burning, soreness, pain during intercourse and urination, and vaginal discharge.

Yeast vaginitis (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8120) occurs when new yeast are introduced into the vagina or there is an increase in the quantity of yeast in the vagina relative to the quantity of bacteria (as when bacteria are eradicated by antibiotics). The yeast can then take over and cause irritation of the lining of the vagina (vaginitis).
Yeast vaginitis tends also to occur with any injury to the vagina (as from chemotherapy (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7778)), immune deficiency (as from AIDS or from using cortisone-type medications) and in women with diabetes mellitus (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=343).
Yeast vaginitis can be treated with antifungal medications applied to the affected area or taken by mouth. Topically applied antibiotic creams include butoconazole (FEMSTAT 3), clotrimazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=921) (LOTRIMIN), miconazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9570) (MONISTAT), and terconazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=948) (TERAZOL 3). Clotrimazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=921), miconazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9570), terconazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=948), and nystatin (MYCOSTATIN) are also available as vaginal tablets. Oral antibiotics for yeast vaginitis and vulvitis include fluconazole (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=739) (DIFLUCAN). During pregnancy, only the topical creams are used. Candida may be normally present in small numbers in some women and not cause disease but the presence of Candida without symptoms of infection does not require treatment.
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Hibat
01-21-2010, 11:31 AM
Spanish Flu


Spanish Flu) was an influenza pandemic that spread to nearly every part of the world during 1918. It may have been caused by an unusually virulent and deadly influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify the geographic origin of the virus. encephalitis lethargica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encephalitis_lethargica) in the 1920s. Most of its victims were healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or otherwise weakened patients. The flu pandemic has also been implicated in the sudden outbreak of
The pandemic lasted from approximately March 1918 to June 1920, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands. It is estimated that anywhere from 50 to 100 million people were killed worldwide which is from three to seven times the casualties of the First World War (15 million), making it the most deadly natural disaster in human history. An estimated 50 million people, about 3% of the world's population (approximately 1.6 billion at the time), died of the disease. An estimated 500 million, or 1/3 were infected.
Scientists have used tissue samples from frozen victims to reproduce the virus for study. Given the strain's extreme virulence there is controversy regarding the wisdom of such research. Among the conclusions of this research is that the virus kills via a cytokine storm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokine_storm) (overreaction of the body's immune system) which perhaps explains its unusually severe nature and the concentrated age profile of its victims. The strong immune systems of young adults ravaged the body, whereas the weaker immune systems of children and middle-aged adults caused fewer deaths>




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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-21-2010, 02:37 PM
Uremia
is a term used to loosely describe the illness accompanying kidney failure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_failure) (also called renal failure), in particular the nitrogenous waste products associated with the failure of this organ.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uremia#cite_note-0)
In kidney failure, urea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urea) and other waste products, which are normally excreted into the urine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine), are retained in the blood. Early symptoms include anorexia and lethargy, and late symptoms can include decreased mental acuity and coma. It is usually diagnosed in kidney dialysis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney_dialysis) patients when the glomerular filtration rate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomerular_filtration_rate), a measure of kidney function, is below 50% of normal.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uremia#cite_note-1)
Azotemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azotemia) is another word that refers to high levels of urea, but is used primarily when the abnormality can be measured chemically but is not yet so severe as to produce symptoms. Uremia can also result in fibrinous pericarditis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pericarditis#Fibrinous_pericarditis). There are many dysfunctions caused by uremia affecting many systems of the body, such as blood (lower levels of erythropoietin), sex (lower levels of testosterone/estrogen) and bones (osteoporosis and metastatic calcifications).
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Uremia&action=edit&section=1)] Causes


Besides renal failure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_failure), the level of urea in the blood can also be increased by:

increased production of urea in the liver, due to:

high protein diet
increased protein breakdown (surgery, infection, trauma, cancer)
gastrointestinal bleeding
drugs (e.g. tetracyclines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetracyclines) and corticosteroids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corticosteroids))



decreased elimination of urea, due to:

decreased blood flow through kidney (e.g. hypotension (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypotension), cardiac failure)
urinary outflow obstruction



dehydration
chronic infection of the kidney such as chronic pyelonephritis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyelonephritis)
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Hibat
01-21-2010, 02:53 PM
Autism



Autism is a severe developmental disability that generally begins at birth or within the first three years of life. It is the result of a neurological disorder that changes the way the brain functions -- causing delays or problems in many different skills from infancy to adulthood. For example, both children and adults with autism usually exhibit difficulties in social interaction as well as in verbal and non-verbal communication. They also tend to be interested in odd, repetitive, or restricted activities. While the majority of autistic children look completely normal, they differ from other children by engaging in perplexing and distressing behaviors.




For more info the topic had been presented by Mustafa Mohamed on the following link:


http://www.suphof.com/vb/showthread.php?t=1694








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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-22-2010, 04:18 PM
Madura Mycetoma
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ICD-10_codes)It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism.Tumefaction and formation of sinus tracts characterize mycetoma. The sinuses usually discharge purulent and seropurulent exudate containing grains. It may spread to involve the skin and the deep structures resulting in destruction, deformity and loss of function, very occasionally it could be fatal.
Epidemiology

The true incidence and the geographical distribution of mycetoma throughout the world is not exactly known due to the nature of the disease which is usually painless, slowly progressive which may lead to the late presentation of the majority of patients. Mycetoma has a worldwide distribution but this is extremely uneven. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The African continent seems to have the highest prevalence. It prevails in what is known as the mycetoma belt stretching between the latitudes of 15 south and 30 north. The belt includes Sudan, Somalia, Senegal, India, Yemen, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina and others.
The geographical distribution of the individual mycetoma organism shows considerable variations, which can be convincingly explained on an environmental basis. Areas where mycetoma prevails are relatively arid zones with a short rainy season with a relative humidity.
The organisms are usually present in the soil in the form of grains. The infecting agent is implanted into the host tissue through a breach in the skin produced by trauma caused by sharp objects such as thorn pricks, stone or splinters.
Pathogenesis

The disease is usually acquired while performing agricultural work (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture), and it generally afflicts men between 20 and 40 years old. The disease is acquired by contacting grains of bacterial or fungal spores (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spores) that have been discharged onto the soil. Infection usually involves an open area or break in the skin. Pseudoallescheria boydii is one of many fungi spp. that causes the fungal form of madura foot (see below). The disease is characterized by a yogurt-like discharge upon maturation of the infection. Hematogenous or lymphatic spread is uncommon. Infections normally start in the foot or hand and travel up the leg or arm.
Madura foot may be one of three varieties, known respectively as black, red, and yellow mycetoma, depending upon color of the granulous discharge. The further course of the sinuses differs according to the mycetoma present. In the black variety, the infection spreads mainly subcutaneously. In the red and yellow varieties deep spread occurs early, and muscle and underlying bones become infiltrated, but unexpectedly, nerves and tendons are highly resistant to invasion
[/URL] (http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/?gb35.htm+b470) [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_Subject_Headings"] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMedicine) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2009/MB_cgi?field=uid&term=D008271)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Madura_foot..JPG/190px-Madura_foot..JPG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Madura_foot..JPG)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-23-2010, 04:26 PM
Acquired Immunizationhttp://www.merck.com/site_images/mm/s.gif (http://www.merck.com/site_images/mm/s.gif)http://www.merck.com/site_images/mm/s.gif (http://www.merck.com/site_images/mm/s.gif)http://www.merck.com/site_images/mm/s.gif (http://www.merck.com/site_images/mm/s.gif)Acquired (adaptive or specific) immunity is not present at birth. It is learned. As a person's immune system encounters foreign substances (antigens), the components of acquired immunity learn the best way to attack each antigen and begin to develop a memory for that antigen. Acquired immunity is also called specific immunity because it tailors its attack to a specific antigen previously encountered. Its hallmarks are its ability to learn, adapt, and remember. Acquired immunity takes time to develop after initial exposure to a new antigen. However, because a memory is formed, subsequent responses to a previously encountered antigen are more effective and more rapid than those generated by innate immunity.
Lymphocytes are the type of white blood cell responsible for acquired immunity. Typically, an acquired immune response begins when antibodies, produced by B cells (B lymphocytes), encounter antigen. Dendritic cells, cytokines, and the complement system (which enhances the effectiveness of antibodies) are also involved.
Lymphocytes

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Hibat
01-24-2010, 09:27 AM
Neonatal Tetanus



Neonatal tetanus (NT) is a severe, often fatal disease caused by a toxin of Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous spore-forming bacterium found in high concentrations in soil and animal excrements. NT is associated with nonsterile delivery and umbilical cord-care practices for newborns of mothers with antitoxin levels insufficient to protect the newborn by transplacental transfer of maternal antibody. In 1997, NT accounted for an estimated 277,400 deaths worldwide (1) but is rare in the United States. During 1995-1997, of 124 tetanus cases reported in the United States, only one occurred in a neonate (2,3). This report summarizes the investigation in March 1998 of an NT case by the Missoula City-County Health Department (MCCHD) and the Montana Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS). The findings indicated that tetanus in a newborn of an unvaccinated mother occurred after application of nonsterile clay to the umbilical cord.

On March 21, 1998, a 9-day-old newborn, who had no previous medical problems, was taken to a hospital by her parents who reported a 10-hour history of an inability to nurse and difficulty in opening her jaw. Her parents also had noticed a foul-smelling discharge from her umbilical cord during the preceding 1-2 days. No other symptoms were noted by the parents. On admission, the newborn had trismus, increased general muscle tone, and hyperresponsiveness to external stimuli. The umbilical cord was covered with dried clay, which when retracted revealed a foul-smelling yellow-green discharge. Culture from the umbilical cord grew several anaerobic (C. perfringens, C. sporogenes) and aerobic (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Bacillus sp.) bacterial species. NT was diagnosed based on the clinical characteristics.

The newborn was treated with tetanus immune globulin (500 units intramuscularly) and penicillin G (300,000 U/kg/day intravenously) for 10 days. On March 24, she required mechanical ventilation and remained ventilated for 12 days. She was discharged on April 10, with no apparent neurologic sequelae and was developing normally on follow-up at age 7 months.

The mother, a 32-year-old non-Hispanic white woman born in the United States, had never been vaccinated because of her family's philosophic beliefs. She had no complications during her pregnancy and was attended throughout her pregnancy by a licensed "direct-entry" midwife * from her community. The newborn was delivered in a local hospital by cesarean section. While in the hospital, she received standard umbilical cord care with isopropyl alcohol. The newborn was discharged at 3 days of age. For home umbilical cord care, the parents applied a "Health and Beauty Clay" powder provided by the midwife. This clay powder was applied to the umbilical cord up to three times daily with a clean cotton-tipped swab. The family lived in a rural area in a house adjacent to a horse pasture. Although the newborn and her mother stayed primarily indoors, the family's dog often ran between the house and the pasture.

The "Health and Beauty Clay" was a bentonite clay from Death Valley, California. According to the manufacturer, it had been sold for 21 years as a cosmetic product without reported adverse health outcomes. The manufacturing process of the clay did not include sterilization. The clay was shipped in 2-lb. containers, sold by weight in a local store, and dispensed to local midwives in smaller containers. The midwives would further aliquot the clay into 2-oz., presumably clean vials for distribution to their patients. The use of the clay for umbilical cord care was common among local direct-entry midwives because they believed it accelerated drying of the umbilical cord.

On April 9, MCCHD distributed a health-care advisory to more than 60 health-care providers in the area that emphasized the importance of tetanus toxoid vaccination, particularly for pregnant women, and cautioned against using nonsterile products for umbilical cord care. Following this case, use of clay for umbilical cord care was discontinued by midwives in the community. The mother of the case-patient has since been vaccinated with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td), but as of October 1998 has not initiated vaccination for her infant because of concern about potential adverse effects.





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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-25-2010, 01:09 PM
Salmonellosis

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Star_of_life_caution.svg/25px-Star_of_life_caution.svg.png (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Star_of_life_caution.svg) Medical disclaimer (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Aviso_m%C3%A9dico)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Salmonella_typhimurium.png/190px-Salmonella_typhimurium.png (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Salmonella_typhimurium.png)

Salmonella typhimurium (Electron microscopy (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microscopio_electr%C3%B3nico)), One of the agencies (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organismo) associated with food poisoning (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intoxicaci%C3%B3n_alimentaria).[1] (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonelosis#cite_note-0)
The Salmonellosis human is a infectious disease (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enfermedad_infecciosa) produced by Enterobacteriaceae (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterobacteria) gender Salmonella (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella). It comprises a set of clinical conditions manifested mainly in the acute gastroenteritis (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastroenteritis),[3] (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonelosis#cite_note-2) one of the most common foodborne illness caused by contaminated food and water,[2] (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonelosis#cite_note-medlinle-1) especially meat (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carne).[4] (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonelosis#cite_note-3)

Etiology

The Salmonellosis is a set of diseases (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enfermedad) produced by the gender (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A9nero_(biolog%C3%ADa)) microbial Salmonella (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella). Not all species (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Especie), strains (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cepa) or serotypes (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serotipo) are recognized as pathogenic potential. The main etiologic agents (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agente_(Medicina)) correspond to Salmonella typhi (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella_typhi), Salmonella paratyphi (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salmonella_paratyphi&action=edit&redlink=1), Salmonella typhimurium (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella_typhimurium) and Salmonella enteritidis (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salmonella_enteritidis&action=edit&redlink=1).[5] (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonelosis#cite_note-4)
Are bacilli (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacilo)Gram negative (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_negativo), facultative anaerobes (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobio_facultativo) the family (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Familia_(biolog%C3%ADa))Enterobacteriaceae (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae). They are fundamentally associated with the intestinal flora (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_intestinal) and, therefore, to water and food that have contacted fecal material (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Material_fecal&action=edit&redlink=1). They produce large amounts of gas during the fermentation of sugars, and perform a Mixed acid fermentation (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fermentaci%C3%B3n_%C3%A1cido_mixta&action=edit&redlink=1)Producing large amounts of acids and gases.
The main reservoir of Salmonella is the intestinal tract of domestic and wild birds. Of particular importance will gulls (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaviota), pigeons (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paloma), turkeys (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pavo), ducks (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pato), Parrots (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loro) and shorebirds (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aves_costeras&action=edit&redlink=1).


His pathogenesis (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patogenia) begins with the ingestion of inoculum (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=In%C3%B3culo&action=edit&redlink=1), Which can vary from 103 106 cells (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9lula). If inoculum is large enough, will overcome the barrier posed by gastric pH (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH) acid. The pathogen (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pat%C3%B3geno) achieved through the intestinal barrier (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Barrera_intestinal&action=edit&redlink=1) and is phagocytized (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fagocitosis) level of Peyer's patches (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placas_de_Peyer). Your protection against polymorphonuclear (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polimorfonuclear&action=edit&redlink=1), complement system (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistema_del_complemento) e immunoglobulins (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inmunoglobulina) lets spread lymphatic (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistema_linf%C3%A1tico) and colonize the territories of reticuloendothelial system (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistema_reticuloendotelial). Will then begin to multiply and increase in number, they can produce the necrosis (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necrosis) of plates Peyer (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peyer&action=edit&redlink=1)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-26-2010, 01:45 PM
Sandflies


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/bf/Biting_sandfly.jpg/180px-Biting_sandfly.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biting_sandfly.jpg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biting_sandfly.jpg)
Sandfly biting a human's little finger


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/SandFlyBite.JPG/180px-SandFlyBite.JPG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SandFlyBite.JPG) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SandFlyBite.JPG)
Sandfly bite


Sandfly (or sand fly) is a colloquial name for any species or genus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus) of flying, biting, blood-sucking (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood-sucking)Dipteran (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diptera) encountered in sandy areas. In the United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States), sandfly may refer to certain horse flies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_fly) that are also known as "greenheads" (family Tabanidae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabanidae)), or to members of the family Ceratopogonidae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratopogonidae), also known in Florida (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida) and elsewhere as a sandflea, no-see-um, no-see-em, noseeum, sand gnats, granny nippers, chitras, punkie, or punky. Outside the United States, sandfly may refer to members of the subfamily Phlebotominae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlebotominae) within the Psychodidae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychodidae). Biting midges are sometimes incorrectly referred to as sand flies. Biting midges also known as no-see-um, no-see-em or noseeum are insects that belong to a different biological group and should not be confused with the sand flies.
While horse flies are large flies, noseeums (sandfleas) and Old-World sandflies are tiny midges (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midge_(insect)). Sandfly bites may leave large, red itchy bumps that may turn into a rash. These bumps are frequently several times as 'itchy' as mosquito bites, and tend to last longer as well.
In the various sorts of sandfly only the female is responsible for biting and sucking the blood of mammals, reptiles and birds. She requires the protein in the blood to make her eggs.
Some sandfly genera of the Phlebotominae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlebotominae) subfamily are the primary vectors of leishmaniasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmaniasis) and Pappataci fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pappataci_fever); both diseases are confusingly referred to as sandfly fever. In the New World (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_World), leishmaniasis is spread by sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutzomyia); in the Old World (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World), the disease is spread by sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlebotomus). Belize (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belize) and Honduras (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honduras) are notorious in the Caribbean (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caribbean) for their sandfly populations and travel pages frequently warn tourists to bring bug spray containing high concentrations of DEET (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DEET).
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
01-28-2010, 09:14 AM
Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS; It is a respiratory disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_disease) in humans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human) which is caused by the SARS coronavirus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SARS_coronavirus) (SARS-CoV).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome#cite_note-Thiel-0) There has been one near pandemic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandemic) to date, between the months of November 2002 and July 2003, with 8,096 known infected cases and 774 deaths (a case-fatality (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_fatality) rate of 9.6%) worldwide being listed in the World Health Organization (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organization)'s (WHO) 21 April 2004 concluding report.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome#cite_note-1) Within a matter of weeks in early 2003, SARS spread from the Guangdong (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guangdong) province of China (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China) to rapidly infect individuals in some 37 countries around the world.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome#cite_note-2)
Mortality by age group as of 8 May 2003 is below 1% for people aged 24 or younger, 6% for those 25 to 44, 15% in those 45 to 64 and more than 50% for those over 65.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome#cite_note-3) For comparison, the case fatality rate for influenza (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza) is usually around 0.6% (primarily among the elderly) but can rise as high as 33% in locally severe epidemics of new strains. The mortality rate of the primary viral pneumonia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia) form is about 70%.
As of May 2006[update] (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome&action=edit), the spread of SARS has been fully contained, with the last infected human case seen in June 2003 (disregarding a laboratory induced infection case in 2004). However, SARS is not claimed to have been eradicated (unlike smallpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox)), as it may still be present in its natural host reservoirs (animal populations) and may potentially return into the human population in the future
E

Badr Eldin Hassan Rabih
01-28-2010, 10:24 AM
Epilepsy
(from the Ancient Greek ἐπιληψία (epilēps&iacute;a) — "to seize") is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures.[1][2] These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.[3] About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, with almost 90% of these people being in developing countries.[4] Epilepsy is more likely to occur in young children, or people over the age of 65 years, however it can occur at any time.[5] Epilepsy is usually controlled, but cannot be cured with medication, although surgery may be considered in difficult cases. However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications.[6][7] Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong – some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood. Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder, but rather as syndromic with vastly divergent symptoms but all involving episodic abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Contents
الحرف القادم Y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-03-2010, 01:06 PM
تحياتي لك اخونا بدرالدين وارجو أن تكون بخير ، معليش هذا الموضوع مكرر . ارجو استعمال خاصية البحث اعلى الصفحة للتاكد من وجود المشاركة مسبقا قبل تنزيلها في البوست .
وما زال حرف E

أرسلت بواسطة Hibat (http://www.suphof.com/vb/member.php?u=38)
http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif (http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif) يا عبدالرحيم تعبتني بي حرف الـ Y دة ... (http://www.suphof.com/vb/showthread.php?p=7242&highlight=Epilepsy#post7242)





المنتدى: منتدى البحوث والدراسات والتثقيف الصحى (http://www.suphof.com/vb/forumdisplay.php?f=17) http://www.suphof.com/vb/PD-style/statusicon/post_old.gif (http://www.suphof.com/vb/PD-style/statusicon/post_old.gif) 01-18-2010, 12:11 PM مشاركات: 166
<A href="http://www.suphof.com/vb/PD-style/statusicon/thread_hot.gif" target=_blank><A href="http://www.suphof.com/vb/PD-style/statusicon/thread_hot.gif" target=_blank><A href="http://www.suphof.com/vb/PD-style/statusicon/thread_hot.gif" target=_blank>[/URL]
أرسلت بواسطة نهى ابراهيم الجاك (http://www.suphof.com/vb/PD-style/statusicon/thread_hot.gif)
[URL="http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif"]http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif (http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif) EPILEPSY الصرع Epilepsy is a chronic disorder... (http://www.suphof.com/vb/showthread.php?p=4005&highlight=Epilepsy#post4005)

أرسلت بواسطة abdelrhman ahmed galal (http://www.suphof.com/vb/member.php?u=48)
http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif (http://www.suphof.com/vb/images/icons/icon1.gif) ُEpilepsy (http://www.suphof.com/vb/showthread.php?p=1135&highlight=Epilepsy#post1135)

Epilepsy الصرع

مرض الصرع هو من الامراض التي يصاب بها الانسان والعديد من الناس لايعرفون اسبابه والمعالجة منه. ارجو شاكرا من كانت له معلومات علمية نشرها لمزيد من المعرفة.
الحرف التالي هو Y

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-03-2010, 01:18 PM
Ebola





Ebolahttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Ebola_virus_em.jpg/180px-Ebola_virus_em.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ebola_virus_em.jpg)Ebola virus electron micrograph (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_microscope)




Ebola is the virus Ebolavirus (EBOV), a viral genus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus), and the disease Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), a viral hemorrhagic fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_hemorrhagic_fever) (VHF). The virus is named after the Ebola River (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_River) Valley in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo) (formerly Zaire (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaire)), which is near the site of the first recognized outbreak, a mission hospital run by Flemish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flemish_people)nuns (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nun), in 1976.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola#cite_note-0) There are four recognised species within the ebolavirus genus, which have a number specific strains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strains).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola#cite_note-1) The Zaire virus is the type species (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_species), which is also the first discovered and the most lethal. Electron micrographs show long filaments, characteristic of the Filoviridae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filoviridae) viral family. The virus interferes with the endothelial cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endothelial_cells) lining the interior surface of blood vessels and coagulation. As the blood vessel walls become damaged and the platelets are unable to coagulate, patients succumb to hypovolemic shock (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypovolemia). Ebola is transmitted through bodily fluids, while conjunctiva (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjunctiva) exposure may also lead to transmission. Ebola first emerged in 1976 in Zaire. However, it remained largely obscure until 1989 when a widely publicized outbreak among monkeys in Reston, Virginia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reston,_Virginia), United States occurred.

A

Hibat
02-04-2010, 10:04 AM
Acidosis



Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35, while its counterpart alkalosis occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes.
The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, physicians sometimes use the terms interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, where the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high or a low pH.
The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g. healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage.





الحرف القادم:

ٍS




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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-04-2010, 03:53 PM
Sanitary engineering
is the application of scientific (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science) or mathematical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics) principles with to the field of sanitation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation), especially in regards to its effect on public health (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_health).
The term sanitary engineering is sometimes viewed as an obsolete term for environmental engineering (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering). It is, however, more limited in its scope and is not concerned with environmental factors that do not have an immediate and clearly understood effect on public health. Areas outside the purview of sanitary engineering include traffic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic) management, concerns about noise pollution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_pollution) or light pollution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_pollution), aesthetic concerns such as landscaping (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landscaping), traffic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic) management, and environmental conservation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_conservation) as it pertains to plants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plants) and animals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animals).
Although sometimes considered synonymous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synonym) with sanitary science (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sanitary_science&action=edit&redlink=1), the phrase sanitary engineering refers specifically to an applied science (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_science) in which engineering (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering) principles are utilized rather than just studied or improved.
Skills within this field are usually employed for the primary goal of disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease) prevention within human beings (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_beings) by assuring a supply of healthy drinking water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water), removing garbage (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste) from inhabited areas, and so on.
Compared to (for example) electrical engineering (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_engineering) or mechanical engineering (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_engineering) which are concerned primarily with closed systems (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed_system), sanitary engineering is a very interdisciplinary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdisciplinary) field which may involve such elements as hydraulics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulics), constructive modelling, information technology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology), project design, microbiology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbiology), pathology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathology) and the many divisions within environmental science (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_science) and environmental technology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_technology). In some cases, considerations that fall within the field of social sciences (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_sciences) must be factored in as well.
Although sanitary engineering may be most associated with the design of sewers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitary_sewer), sewage treatment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewage_treatment) and waste water treatment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_water_treatment) facilities, recycling (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling) centers, public landfills (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landfill) and other things which are constructed, the term applies equally to (for example) a plan of action to reverse the effects of water pollution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pollution) or soil contamination (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_contamination) in a specific area.
G

Hibat
02-07-2010, 11:51 AM
Gender-based violence (GBV) is used to distinguish violence that targets individuals or groups of individuals on the basis of their gender from other forms of violence. It includes any act which results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm. GBV includes violent acts such as rape, torture, mutilation, sexual slavery, forced impregnation and murder. It also defines threats of these acts as a form of violence




الحرف القادم


V


المفروض أنه الحرف القادم E لكن نسبة لعدم ظهور الـV كثيراً اخترته كي يكون الحرف القادم.




تحياتي
هبات

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-07-2010, 11:04 PM
Vaccination




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Vaccination-polio-india.jpg/180px-Vaccination-polio-india.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vaccination-polio-india.jpg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vaccination-polio-india.jpg)
Child receiving an oral polio vaccine.


Vaccination is the administration of antigenic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen) material (the vaccine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine)) to produce immunity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunity_(medical)) to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection) by a pathogen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen). Vaccination is generally considered to be the most effective and cost-effective method of preventing infectious diseases. The material administrated can either be live but weakened forms of pathogens (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen) (bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria) or viruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus)), killed or inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified material such as proteins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein). Smallpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox) was the first disease people tried to prevent by purposely inoculating themselves with other types of infections; smallpox inoculation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inoculation) was started in China (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China) or India (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India) before 200 BC.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination#cite_note-pmid17633292-0) In 1718, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Mary_Wortley_Montagu) reported that the Turks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_people) had a habit of deliberately inoculating themselves with fluid taken from mild cases of smallpox, and that she had inoculated her own children.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination#cite_note-pmid6319980-1) Before 1796 when British physician Edward Jenner (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Jenner) tested the possibility of using the cowpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cowpox) vaccine as an immunisation for smallpox in humans for the first time, at least six people had done the same several years earlier: a person whose identity is unknown, England, (about 1771); a Mrs. Sevel, Germany (about 1772); a Mr. Jensen, Germany (about 1770); Benjamin Jesty, England, in 1774; a Mrs. Rendall, England (about 1782); and Peter Plett, Germany, in 1791.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination#cite_note-Sudhoffs-2)
The word vaccination was first used by Edward Jenner in 1796. Louis Pasteur (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Pasteur) furthered the concept through his pioneering work in microbiology. Vaccination (Latin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language): vacca—cow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cow)) is so named because the first vaccine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine) was derived from a virus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_(biology)) affecting cows—the relatively benign cowpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cowpox) virus—which provides a degree of immunity to smallpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox), a contagious and deadly disease. In common speech, 'vaccination' and 'immunization' generally have the same colloquial meaning. This distinguishes it from inoculation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inoculation) which uses unweakened live pathogens, although in common usage either is used to refer to an immunization (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunization). The word "vaccination" was originally used specifically to describe the injection of smallpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox) vaccine.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination#cite_note-pmid17633292-0)[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination#cite_note-Sudhoffs-2)
Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine_controversy) since their inception, on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. In rare cases, vaccinations can injure people and they may receive compensation for those injuries. Early success and compulsion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination_Act) brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns were undertaken which are credited with greatly reducing the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions.

N

Hibat
02-08-2010, 09:26 AM
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma


Definition:

Any of a large group of cancers of lymphocytes (white blood cells). Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur at any age and are often marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These types can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types, and they can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas include Burkitt lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphomas that occur after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and type of disease. Also called NHL.







الحرف القادم:


A







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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-09-2010, 11:00 AM
Abortion




Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy_(mammals)) by the removal or expulsion from the uterus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterus) of a fetus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetus) or embryo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embryo), resulting in or caused by its death.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion#cite_note-0) An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complication_(medicine)) during pregnancy or can be induced, in humans and other species. In the context of human pregnancies, an abortion induced to preserve the health of the gravida (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravidity) (pregnant female) is termed a therapeutic abortion, while an abortion induced for any other reason is termed an elective abortion. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy), while spontaneous abortions are usually termed miscarriages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscarriage).
Abortion has a long history (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_abortion) and has been induced by various methods including herbal abortifacients (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortifacient), the use of sharpened tools, physical trauma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_trauma) and other traditional methods (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_medicine). Contemporary medicine utilizes medications (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medication) and surgical procedures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgery) to induce abortion. The legality (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_law), prevalence, and cultural views on abortion vary substantially around the world. In many parts of the world there is prominent and divisive public controversy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_debate) over the ethical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_aspects_of_abortion) and legal issues of abortion. Abortion and abortion-related issues feature prominently in the national politics in many nations, often involving the opposing "pro-life (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-life)" and "pro-choice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-choice)" worldwide social movements. Incidence of abortion has declined worldwide, as access to family planning education and contraceptive services has increased. Abortion incidence in the United States declined 8% from 1996 to 2003
N

Hibat
02-09-2010, 12:09 PM
Neonatal Jaundice


Newborn babies often suffer from a slight yellow tinge of the skin and eyes caused by a type of jaundice called neonatal jaundice. This is from bilirubin in the blood because of the immaturity of their livers. This usually resolves without treatment in a few days, but in severe cases it can require treatment.


Risk factors for Neonatal Jaundice are factors that do not seem to be a direct cause of the disease, but seem to be associated in some way. Having a risk factor for Neonatal Jaundice makes the chances of getting a condition higher but does not always lead to Neonatal Jaundice. Also, the absence of any risk factors or having a protective factor does not necessarily guard you against getting Neonatal Jaundice.

symptoms of Neonatal Jaundice: The symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible symptoms of Neonatal Jaundice. This symptom information has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of symptoms of Neonatal Jaundice. Furthermore, symptoms of Neonatal Jaundice may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of symptoms and whether they are indeed symptoms of Neonatal Jaundice.









الحرف القادم:

E





تحياتي
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-10-2010, 10:26 AM
Escherichia coli

Escherichia colihttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg/250px-EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg)Scientific classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification)
Phylum:Proteobacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria)
Class:Gamma Proteobacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria)
Order:Enterobacteriales (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae)
Family:Enterobacteriaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae)
Genus:Escherichia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia)
Species:coli
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli; pronounced , and named after its discoverer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Escherich)), is a Gram negative (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_negative)rod-shaped (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_(shape))bacterium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterium) that is commonly found in the lower intestine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrointestinal_tract) of warm-blooded (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warm-blooded) organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strain_(biology)) are harmless, but some, such as serotype (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serovar)O157:H7 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli_O157:H7), can cause serious food poisoning (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foodborne_illness) in humans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human), and are occasionally responsible for product recalls (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_recall).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-CDC-0)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Vogt-1) The harmless strains are part of the normal flora (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_flora) of the gut (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut), and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_K)2,[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Bentley-2) or by preventing the establishment of pathogenic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen) bacteria within the intestine.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Hudault-3)[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Reid-4)
E. coli are not always confined to the intestine, and their ability to survive for brief periods outside the body makes them an ideal indicator organism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indicator_organism) to test environmental samples for fecal contamination (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feces).[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Feng_2002-5)[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Thompson-6) The bacteria can also be grown easily and its genetics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics) are comparatively simple and easily-manipulated or duplicated through a process of metagenics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metagenics), making it one of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_organism), and an important species in biotechnology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology) and microbiology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbiology).
E. coli was discovered by German pediatrician and bacteriologist Theodor Escherich (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Escherich) in 1885,[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-Feng_2002-5) and is now classified as part of the Enterobacteriaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae) family of gamma-proteobacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria).[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli#cite_note-7)
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-12-2010, 08:47 AM
Incubation period
is the time (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time) elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogenic)organism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism), a chemical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical) or radiation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation), and when symptoms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symptoms) and signs are first apparent. The period may be as short as minutes to as long as thirty years in the case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creutzfeldt-Jakob_disease).
While Latent or Latency period may be synonymous, a distinction is sometimes made between Incubation period, the period between infection and clinical onset of the disease, and Latent period, the time from infection to infectiousness. Which is shorter depends on the disease.
A person may be a carrier of a disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease), such as Streptococcus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcus) in the throat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Throat) without exhibiting any symptoms. Depending on the disease, the person may or may not be contagious (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contagious_disease) during the incubation period.
During clinical latency, an infection is subclinical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subclinical). With respect to viral infections (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_infection), in clinical latency the virus is actively replicating.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incubation_period#cite_note-pmid9305294-0) This is in contrast to viral latency (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_latency), a form of dormancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dormancy) in which the virus does not replicate.

Clinical latency occurs in:

AIDS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS): persons infected with HIV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV) may at first have no symptoms and show no signs of AIDS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS), despite HIV replicating in the lymphatic system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphatic_system) and rapidly accumulating a large viral load (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_load). These persons may be infectious (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection)
D

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-14-2010, 02:16 PM
Decease
Death(decease) is the termination of the biological (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological)
functions that define a living (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life) organism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism). It refers both to a particular event and to the condition that results thereby. The true nature of the latter has, for millennia, been a central concern of the world's religious traditions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religions) and of philosophical enquiry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy). Belief in some kind of afterlife (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afterlife) or rebirth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reincarnation) is a central aspect of many religious traditions.
Humans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human) and the vast majority of other animals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal) die in due course from senescence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence). Remarkable exceptions include the hydra (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydra_(genus)), and the jellyfish turritopsis nutricula (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turritopsis_nutricula), which is thought to possess in effect biological immortality (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_immortality).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-http:.2F.2Fwww.agelessanimals.org.2F-0)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/SkullFromTheFront.JPG
Universal symbol for death: a human skull (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skull_(symbolism))
Intervening phenomena which commonly bring about death earlier include malnutrition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutrition), disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease), or accidents (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accident) resulting in terminal physical injury (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_injury). Predation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predation) is a cause of death for many species. Intentional (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volition_(psychology)) human activity causing death includes suicide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide), homicide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homicide), and war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War). Roughly 150,000 people die each day across the globe.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-doi10.2202.2F1941-6008.1011-1) Death in the natural world (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature) can also occur as an indirect result of human activity: an increasing cause of species (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species) depletion in recent times (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene_extinction_event) has been destruction of ecosystems (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem) as a consequence of the widening spread of industrial (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrialization) technology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology).[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-2)
Physiological (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiology) death is now seen as less an event than a process: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-3) Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vital_signs). In general, clinical death (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_death) is neither necessary nor sufficient for a determination of legal death (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_death). A patient with working heart (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart) and lungs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung) determined to be brain dead (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_death) can be pronounced legally dead without clinical death occurring. Precise medical definition of death, in other words, becomes more problematic, paradoxically, as scientific knowledge (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science) and technology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology) advance.



E

khalidfadleallahmohammed
02-15-2010, 02:20 PM
Ebidemiological traid

اى الثالوث الوبائيوهو ينقسم الى:-
1-Agent
2- Enviroment
3- Host

D

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-17-2010, 12:53 PM
Dementia
(meaning "deprived of mind") is a serious loss of cognitive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive) ability in a previously-unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aging). It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease) in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geriatric) population, it may occur in any stage of adulthood.
This age cutoff is defining, as similar sets of symptoms due to organic brain syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_brain_syndrome) or dysfunction, are given different names in populations younger than adult. Up to the end of the nineteenth century, dementia was a much broader clinical concept.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia#cite_note-Berr-0)
Dementia is a non-specific illness syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndrome) (set of signs and symptoms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symptoms)) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory), attention (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention), language (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language), and problem solving (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_solving). It is normally required to be present for at least 6 months to be diagnosed;[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia#cite_note-Def-1) cognitive dysfunction that has been seen only over shorter times, in particular less than weeks, must be termed delirium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delirium). In all types of general cognitive dysfunction, higher mental functions are affected first in the process.
Especially in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be disoriented (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disorientation) in time (not knowing what day of the week, day of the month, or even what year it is), in place (not knowing where they are), and in person (not knowing who they are or others around them). Dementia, though often treatable to some degree, is usually due to causes that are progressive and incurable.[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]
Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etiology) of the disease. Less than 10 percent of cases of dementia are due to causes that may presently be reversed with treatment. Causes include many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice), or pain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain) are attributable to many etiologies.
Without careful assessment of history, the short-term syndrome of delirium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delirium) (often lasting days to weeks) can easily be confused with dementia, because they have all symptoms in common, save duration, and the fact that delirium is often associated with over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system.[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)] Some mental illnesses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_illnesses), including depression (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depression_(mood)) and psychosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychosis), may also produce symptoms that must be differentiated from both delirium and dementia.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia#cite_note-Glea-2) Chronic use of substances such as alcohol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholic_beverage) as well as chronic sleep deprivation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_deprivation) can

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-18-2010, 02:58 PM
Acidosis
is an increased acidity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidity) (i.e. an increased hydrogen ion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_ion) concentration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentration)). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_plasma).
Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH) falls below 7.35, while its counterpart (alkalosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkalosis)) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arterial_blood_gas) analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes.
The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, physicians sometimes use the terms interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, where the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high or a low pH.
The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g. healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidosis#cite_note-0)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Symptoms_of_acidosis.png/250px-Symptoms_of_acidosis.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Symptoms_of_acidosis.png) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Symptoms_of_acidosis.png)
General symptoms of acidosis.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidosis#cite_note-1) [3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidosis#cite_note-2) These usually accompany symptoms of another primary defect (respiratory or metabolic).



S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-21-2010, 12:00 AM
Sepsis
is a serious medical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine) condition that is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation) state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemic_inflammatory_response_syndrome) or SIRS) and the presence of a known or suspected infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis#cite_note-pmid12682500-0)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis#cite_note-1992consensus-1) The body may develop this inflammatory response to microbes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbes) in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues. An incorrect layman's term for sepsis is blood poisoning, more aptly applied to Septicemia, below.
Septicemia (also septicaemia or septic&aelig;mia [sep⋅ti⋅c&aelig;⋅mi⋅a][3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis#cite_note-2), or erroneously Septasemia and Septisema) is a related but deprecated (formerly sanctioned) medical term referring to the presence of pathogenic organisms in the bloodstream, leading to sepsis.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis#cite_note-3) The term has not been sharply defined. It has been inconsistently used in the past by medical professionals, for example as a synonym of bacteremia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteremia), causing some confusion. The present medical consensus is therefore that the term "septicemia" is problematic and should be avoided.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis#cite_note-1992consensus-1)
Sepsis is usually treated in the intensive care unit (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intensive_care_unit) with intravenous fluids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous_fluids) and antibiotics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotics). If fluid replacement is insufficient to maintain blood pressure, specific vasopressor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasopressor) drugs can be used. Artificial ventilation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_ventilation) and dialysis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialysis) may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. To guide therapy, a central venous catheter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_venous_catheter) and an arterial catheter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arterial_catheter) may be placed. Sepsis patients require preventive measures for deep vein thrombosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_vein_thrombosis), stress ulcers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_ulcer) and pressure ulcers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_ulcer), unless other conditions prevent this. Some patients might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycemia) with insulin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin) (targeting stress hyperglycemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_hyperglycemia)), low-dose corticosteroids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corticosteroids) or activated drotrecogin alfa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activated_drotrecogin_alfa) (recombinant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombinant_DNA) protein C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_C)).[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis#cite_note-campaign-4)

S

Hibat
02-21-2010, 10:22 AM
Sleeping Sickness


sleeping sickness is a widespread tropical disease that can be fatal if not treated. It is spread by the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina Genus).

The tsetse fly bite erupts into a red sore and within a few weeks the person can experience fever, swollen lymph glands, aching muscles and joints, headaches and irritability.
In advanced stages, the disease attacks the central nervous system, causing changes in personality, alteration of the biological clock (the circadian rhythm), confusion, slurred speech, seizures, and difficulty walking and talking. These problems can develop over many years in the Gambiense form and some months in the Rhodesiense form; if not treated, the person will die.

Control of sleeping sickness is based on reduction of the reservoirs of infection by early diagnosis and control of tsetse flies.





ٍS





تحياتي
هبات

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-23-2010, 01:38 PM
sperm
is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed") and refers to the male reproductive cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)). In the types of sexual reproduction (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_reproduction) known as anisogamy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anisogamy) and oogamy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oogamy), there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamete) with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. The human (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human) sperm cell is haploid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haploid), so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to form a diploid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diploid) cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motility) is referred to as a spermatozoon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spermatozoon), whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovum) during fertilization, a totipotent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totipotency)zygote (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zygote) is formed with the potential to develop into a new organism.
The spermatozoa of animals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal) are produced through spermatogenesis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spermatogenesis) inside the male gonads (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonad) (testicles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testicle)) via meiotic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiosis) division. They are carried out of the male body in a fluid known as semen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen). Mammalian sperm cells can live for up to 3 days inside the female reproductive system.[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]
Sperm cells in algal and many plant gametophytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gametophyte) are produced in male gametangia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gametangium) (antheridia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antheridium)) via mitotic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitosis) division. In flowering plants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowering_plant), sperm nuclei are produced inside pollen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollen).




Anatomy

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Sperm2.svg/220px-Sperm2.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm2.svg)http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm2.svg)
Structure of a spermatozoon


The sperm cell consists of a head, a midpiece and a tail. The head contains the nucleus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nucleus) with densely coiled chromatin fibres, surrounded anteriorly by an acrosome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrosome), which contains enzymes used for penetrating the female egg. The midpiece has a central filamentous core with many mitochondria spiralled around it, used for ATP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate) production for the journey through the female cervix (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervix), uterus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterus) and uterine tubes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterine_tubes). The tail or "flagellum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flagellum)" executes the lashing movements that propel the spermatocyte.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-24-2010, 04:52 PM
Mumps
and epidemic parotitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parotitis) is a viral disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_disease) of the human (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human) species, caused by the mumps virus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps_virus). Prior to the development of vaccination (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination) and the introduction of a vaccine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps_vaccine), it was a common childhood disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childhood_disease) worldwide, and is still a significant threat to health in the third world (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_world).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-Harrison-0)
Painful swelling of the salivary glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salivary_gland) (classically the parotid gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parotid_gland)) is the most typical presentation.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-Hviid-1) Painful testicular swelling (orchitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchitis)) and rash (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rash) may also occur. The symptoms are generally not severe in children. In teenage males and men, complications such as infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infertility) or subfertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subfertility) are more common, although still rare in absolute terms.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-2)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-3)[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-4) The disease is generally self-limited (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-limiting_(biology)), running its course before receding, with no specific treatment apart from controlling the symptoms with painkillers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painkiller).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Mumps_PHIL_130_lores.jpg/230px-Mumps_PHIL_130_lores.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mumps_PHIL_130_lores.jpg)
Symptoms

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Mumps_comparison.jpg/220px-Mumps_comparison.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mumps_comparison.jpg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mumps_comparison.jpg)
Comparison of a person before and after contracting mumps


common symptoms of mumps are

Parotid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parotid_gland) inflammation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation) (or parotitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parotitis)) in 60–70% of infections and 95% of patients with symptoms.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-Hviid-1) Parotitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parotitis) causes swelling and local pain, particularly when chewing. It can occur on one side (unilateral) but is more common on both sides (bilateral) in about 90% of cases.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-5)
Fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever)
Headache (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache)
Orchitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchitis), referring to painful inflammation of the testicle.[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-6) Males past puberty who develop mumps have a 30 percent risk of orchitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchitis).[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-7)
Other symptoms of mumps can include dry mouth, sore face and/or ears and occasionally in more serious cases, loss of voice. In addition, up to 20% of persons infected with the mumps virus do not show symptoms, so it is possible to be infected and spread the virus without knowing it.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps#cite_note-8)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-25-2010, 10:26 PM
Sodium chloride
, also known as salt, common salt, table salt, or halite (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halite), is an ionic compound (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionic_compound) with the formula (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_formula)Na (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium)Cl (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloride). Sodium chloride is the salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_(chemistry)) most responsible for the salinity of the ocean (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean) and of the extracellular fluid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extracellular_fluid) of many multicellular organisms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism). As the major ingredient in edible salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edible_salt), it is commonly used as a condiment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condiment) and food preservative (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preservative).
Salt is currently mass-produced (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_production) by evaporation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation) of seawater (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seawater) or brine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brine) from other sources, such as brine wells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brine_well) and salt lakes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_lake_(geography)), and by mining (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_mine) rock salt, called halite (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halite). In 2002, world production was estimated at 210 million metric tons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metric_ton), the top five producers (in million tonnes) being the United States (40.3), China (32.9), Germany (17.7), India (14.5) and Canada (12.3).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_chloride#cite_note-1)
As well as the familiar uses of salt in cooking (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooking), salt is used in many applications, from manufacturing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing) pulp and paper, to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, to producing soaps (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap), detergents (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detergent), and other bath products. It is the major source of industrial chlorine and sodium hydroxide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_hydroxide), and used in almost every industry.
Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desiccant) because it appears to have hygroscopic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hygroscopic) properties, making salting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salting_(food)) an effective method of food preservation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_preservation) historically; as it draws water out of bacteria through osmotic pressure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmotic_pressure) preventing them from reproducing and causing food to spoil. Even though more effective desiccants are available, few are safe for humans to ingest.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/91/Dead-Sea---Salt-Evaporation-Ponds.jpg/105px-Dead-Sea---Salt-Evaporation-Ponds.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead-Sea---Salt-Evaporation-Ponds.jpg)

Jordanian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jordan) salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_Sea)


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Piles_of_Salt_Salar_de_Uyuni_Bolivia_Luca_Galuzzi_ 2006_a.jpg/120px-Piles_of_Salt_Salar_de_Uyuni_Bolivia_Luca_Galuzzi_ 2006_a.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Piles_of_Salt_Salar_de_Uyuni_Bolivia_Luca_Gal uzzi_2006_a.jpg)

Mounds of salt, Salar de Uyuni (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salar_de_Uyuni), Bolivia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivia)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-27-2010, 08:10 PM
Epizootic
is a disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease) that appears as new cases in a given animal population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is "expected" based on recent experience (i.e. a sharp elevation in the incidence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incidence_(epidemiology)) rate). Epidemic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemic) is the analogous term applied to human populations. High population density (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_density) is a major contributing factor to epizootics. Aquaculture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaculture) is an industry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry) sometimes plagued by disease because of the large number of fish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish) confined to a small area.
Defining an epizootic can be subjective, depending in part on what is "expected". An epizootic may be: a) restricted to a specific locale (an outbreak), b) general (an "epizootic") or c) widespread (panzootic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panzootic)). Because it is based on what is "expected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease (like a TSE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmissible_spongiform_encephalopathy) outbreak in a Cervid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervid) population) might be classified as an "epizootic," while many cases of a common disease (like lymphocystis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocystis) in Esocids) would not.
Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in the population are said to be "enzootic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzootic)." An example of an enzootic disease would be the influenza (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza) virus in some bird populations [1] (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no01/05-1024.htm) or, at a lower incidence, the Type IVb strain of VHS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_hemorrhagic_septicemia) in certain Atlantic fish populations. [2] (http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/Viral-Hemorrhagic-Septicemia-Fact-Sheet-11-9-2006_178081_7.pdf)
An example of an epizootic would be the 1990 outbreak of Newcastle disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newcastle_disease) virus in double-crested cormorant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-crested_cormorant) colonies on the Great Lakes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Lakes) that resulted in the death of some 10,000 birds. [3] (http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/publications/field_manual/chapter_21.pdf)
A more recent example ( may-August 2009 ) is the progressive disappearance of the common pigeons and Sea-Gull in Montréal ( Québec , Canada ), this is still unexplained, although repeated advises to public services. For now
called the JPD09 event
C

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
02-28-2010, 12:14 PM
Cysticercosis
is the most common parasitic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasite) infestation of the central nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system) worldwide.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysticercosis#cite_note-pmid12364377-0) Humans develop cysticercosis when they ingest eggs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_(biology)) or larvae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larva) of the tapeworm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapeworm) Taenia solium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taenia_solium). The eggs and larvae are usually found in fecally-contaminated water or food and in undercooked pork. Autoinfection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoinfection) as a result of the entry of eggs into stomach due to retroperistalsis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retroperistalsis) or as a result of accidental ingestion of eggs from the host's own feces due to contaminated hands is also possible.
Life cycle
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Life_cycle.gif (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Life_cycle.gif)
The life cycle involves humans as a definite host and pigs as an intermediate host. Pigs ingest contaminated food or water that contains eggs or proglottids from human’s feces. The ova develop into cysticercus in pig muscles. Human becomes infected when they ingest raw or undercooked “measly pork” that contains viable cysticercus. Upon reaching the small intestine, the scolex attaches to the intestinal wall and a proglottid chain grows. T. solium releases three to six proglottids/day, bearing 30,000 to 70,000 eggs (ova (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovum)) per proglottid into the intestine. Nearly 250,000 ova are passed daily into the human feces and to the environment, and the cycle continues.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysticercosis#cite_note-three-8) Infections with cysticercus occur after humans consume the ova from exogenous sources or through self-infection via the fecal-oral route. Humans, in this case, are intermediate hosts. Ova are digested in the stomach and release oncospheres which penetrate the intestinal wall and reach the bloodstream. [10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysticercosis#cite_note-cdc-9) These oncospheres develop into cysticerci in any organ but are common in brain, subcutaneous tissue, or eyes
S

khalidfadleallahmohammed
03-01-2010, 12:33 PM
salmonella typhi agent of typhoid diseaes and para typhoid disease

Salmonellosis: Infection with bacteria belonging to the genus Salmonella (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=85146). Salmonellosis is a common cause of food poisoning (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2006) as, for example, from raw eggs (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=31893).
The symptoms of salmonellosis usually begin within 12 to 24 hours of exposure to the bacteria and include stomach cramps, diarrhea (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1900), fever (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=361), and sometimes vomiting. The diagnosis can be confirmed by examination of a stool sample for the Salmonella bacteria.
Most people exposed to Salmonella feel well within a few days and do not require treatment other than extra fluids. Some people need antibiotics. And a few need hospitalization for diarrhea and dehydration. Salmonellosis is particularly dangerous in people with immunodeficiency and in people with sickle cell anemia (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=474). If the infection spreads from the intestines, it may be treated with ampicillin, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin. Unfortunately, some Salmonella bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics, largely as a result of the use of antibiotics to promote the growth of feed animals.
A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-01-2010, 04:11 PM
شكرا خالد خلف الله على المشاركة ونأمل دوام تواصلك معنا في هذا البوست

Adrenaline
is a hormone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone) and neurotransmitter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-0) When produced in the body it increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels and dilates air passages and participates in the "fight or flight" response (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fight-or-flight_response) of the sympathetic nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sympathetic_nervous_system).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-1) It is a catecholamine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catecholamine), a sympathomimetic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sympathomimetic) monoamine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoamine) produced only by the adrenal glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_gland) from the amino acids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid) phenylalanine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenylalanine) and tyrosine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine).
The term adrenaline is derived from the Latin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language) roots ad- and renes and literally means on the kidney (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney), in reference to the adrenal gland's anatomic location on the kidney. The Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language) roots epi- and nephros have similar meanings, and give rise to epinephrine. The term epinephrine is often shortened to epi in medical jargon.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-isbn0-89262-438-8-2)
In 1895, Polish scientist Napoleon Cybulski (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_Cybulski) obtained an extract from adrenal glands and called it "nadnerczyna". This extract contained a lot of catecholamines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catecholamine).[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)] Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jokichi_Takamine) and his assistant Keizo Uenaka independently discovered adrenaline in 1900.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-3)[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-pmid10454061-4) In 1901 Takamine successfully isolated and purified the hormone from the adrenal glands of sheep and oxen.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-5) Adrenaline was first synthesized by Friedrich Stolz (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Stolz) and Henry Drysdale Dakin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Drysdale_Dakin), independently, in 1904.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#cite_note-pmid10454061-4)

Hibat
03-02-2010, 09:28 AM
Emergency


A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources





لأن حرف الـ Y نادر سيكون الحرف التالي C







تحياتي
هبات

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-02-2010, 01:19 PM
Cucumber (disambiguation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucumber_(disambiguation))
Cucumbe
rhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/ARS_cucumber.jpg/250px-ARS_cucumber.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ARS_cucumber.jpg)



Scientific classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification)
Kingdom:Plantae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant)
Division:Magnoliophyta (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowering_plant)
Class:Magnoliopsida (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnoliopsida)
Order:Cucurbitales (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucurbitales)
Family:Cucurbitaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucurbitaceae)
Genus:Cucumis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucumis)
Species:C. sativus

. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus)Energy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy))Carbohydrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate)

Sugars1.67 g Dietary fiber (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietary_fiber) 0.5 g Fat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat) 0.11
g Protein (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein#Nutrition) 0.65 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine) 0.027 mg (2%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riboflavin) 0.033 mg (2%)Niacin (Vit. B3) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niacin) 0.098 mg (1%) Pantothenic acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantothenic_acid) (B5)0.259 mg (5%) Vitamin B6 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B6) 0.040 mg (3%) Folate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folate) (Vit. B9)7 μg (2%) Vitamin C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C) 2.8 mg (5%) Calcium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium#Nutrition) 16 mg (2%) Iron (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron#Biological_role) 0.28 mg (2%) Magnesium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_in_biological_systems)

The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gourd) family Cucurbitaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucurbitaceae), which includes squash (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squash_(fruit)), and in the same genus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus) as the muskmelon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muskmelon).





The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trellis_(agriculture)) or other supporting frames, wrapping around ribbing with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruit.
The fruit is roughly cylindrical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cylinder_(geometry)), elongated, with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60 cm long and 10 cm in diameter. Cucumbers grown to be eaten fresh (called slicers) and those intended for pickling (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pickling) (called picklers) are similar. Cucumbers are mainly eaten in the unripe green form. The ripe yellow form normally becomes too bitter and sour. Cucumbers are usually over 90% water.
Having an enclosed seed and developing from a flower, botanically speaking, cucumbers are classified as fruits (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit). However, much like tomatoes and squash they are usually perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetables (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucumber#cite_note-0)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Cucumber_and_cross_section.jpg/400px-Cucumber_and_cross_section.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cucumber_and_cross_section.jpg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cucumber_and_cross_section.jpg)

Cucumber and cross section

R

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-04-2010, 12:22 PM
Relapsing Fever
Louse-borne relapsing fever
Borrelia recurrentis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrelia_recurrentis) is the only agent of louse (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louse)-borne disease. Pediculus humanus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pediculus_humanus), is the specific vector. Louse-borne relapsing fever is more severe than the tick-borne variety.
Louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in epidemics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemics) amid poor living conditions, famine and war in the developing world (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developing_country). it is currently prevalent in Ethiopia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopia) and Sudan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan).
Mortality rate is 1% with treatment; 30-70% without treatment. Poor prognostic signs include severe jaundice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice), severe change in mental status, severe bleeding, and prolonged QT interval (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QT_interval) on ECG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECG).
Lice that feed on infected humans acquire the Borrelia organisms that then multiply in the gut of the louse. When an infected louse feeds on an uninfected human, the organism gains access when the victim crushes the louse or scratches the area where the louse is feeding. B. recurrentis infects the person via mucous membranes and then invades the bloodstream. No animal reservoir exists.
Tick-borne Relapsing Fever

Other relapsing infections are acquired from other Borrelia species, such as Borrelia hermsii (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrelia_hermsii) or Borrelia parkeri (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Borrelia_parkeri&action=edit&redlink=1), which can be spread from rodents, and serve as a reservoir for the infection, via a tick (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick) vector. Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis cause very similar diseases although the disease associated with Borrelia hermsii has more relapses and is responsible for more fatalities, while the disease caused by B. recurrentis has longer febrile and afebrile intervals and a longer incubation period.
Tick-borne relapsing fever is found primarily in Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Asia, and certain areas in the Western U.S. and Canada. It is Borrelia duttoni transmitted by the soft-bodied African tick Ornithodoros moubata that is responsible for the relapsing fever found in Central, East and southern Africa.
Diagnosis

Most people who are infected get sick around 5-15 days after they are bitten by the tick. The symptoms may include a sudden fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever), chills, headaches (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headaches), and muscle or joint aches, and nausea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea); a rash may also occur. These symptoms continue for 2-9 days, then disappear. This cycle may continue for several weeks if the person is not treated.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relapsing_fever#cite_note-Sherris-4) Relapsing Fever is easily treated with 1-2 weeks of antibiotics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotics). Most people improve within 24 hours of starting antibiotics. Complications and death due to relapsing fever are rare.
Relapsing fever is a candidate etiology for a mysterious series of plagues in late medieval and early renaissance-era England referred to at the time as sweating sickness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweating_sickness) but which have not recurred in epidemic form since the 16th Century
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-05-2010, 05:18 PM
Radiation Therapy
The use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells, stopping them from growing and
dividing. Like surgery, radiation therapy (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7782) is a local treatment that affects cancer cells only in the treated area.
Radiation can come from a machine (external radiation or from an a small container of radioactive material implanted directly into or near the tumor (internal radiation). Some patients receive both kinds of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy is usually given on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic, five days a week for several weeks. Patients are not radioactive during or after the treatment. For internal radiation therapy, the patient stays in the hospital for a few days. The implant may be temporary or permanent. Because the level of radiation is highest during the hospital stay, patients may not be able to have visitors, or may have visitors only for a short time. Once an implant is removed, there is no radioactivity in the body. The amount of radiation in a permanent implant goes down to a safe level before the patient leaves the hospital. Side effects of radiation therapy depend on the treatment dose and the part of the body that is treated. The most common side effects are tiredness, skin reactions (such as a rash (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1992) or redness) in the treated area, and loss of appetite. Radiation therapy can cause inflammation of tissues and organs in and around the body site radiated. Radiation therapy can also cause a decrease in the number of white blood cells. Although the side effects of radiation therapy can be unpleasant, they can usually be treated or controlled. It also helps to know that, in most cases, they are not permanent.
P

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-07-2010, 06:50 PM
Pancreas

The pancreas is a gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gland) organ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_(anatomy)) in the digestive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestive_system) and endocrine system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_system) of vertebrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebrate). It is both an endocrine gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_gland) producing several important hormones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone), including insulin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin), glucagon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucagon), and somatostatin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somatostatin), as well as an exocrine gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exocrine_gland), secreting pancreatic juice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreatic_juice) containing digestive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestion) enzymes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme) that pass to the small intestine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_intestine). These enzymes help in the further breakdown of the carbohydrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrates), protein (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein), and fat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat) in the chyme (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chyme).



Histology

Under a microscope (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microscope), stained sections of the pancreas reveal two different types of parenchymal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parenchyma) tissue.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas#cite_note-1) Lightly staining clusters of cells are called islets of Langerhans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islets_of_Langerhans), which produce hormones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone) that underlie the endocrine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_gland) functions of the pancreas. Darker staining cells form acini (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acinus) connected to ducts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exocrine_duct). Acinar cells belong to the exocrine pancreas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exocrine_pancreas) and secrete digestive enzymes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestive_enzyme) into the gut via a system of ducts
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abdulsalam
03-07-2010, 08:49 PM
Spirillum minus
Rat-bite fever is caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis orSpirillum minus. S moniliformis infection (streptobacillaryfever or Haverhill fever) is characterized by fever, rash, andarthritis. There is an abrupt onset of fever, chills, musclepain, vomiting, headache, and occasionally, adenopathy. A maculopapularor petechial rash develops, predominantly on the extremitiesincluding the palms and soles, typically within a few days offever onset. The bite site usually heals promptly and exhibitsno or minimal inflammation. Nonsuppurative migratory polyarthritisor arthralgia follows in approximately 50% of patients. Untreatedinfection usually has a relapsing course for a mean of 3 weeks.Complications include soft tissue and solid-organ abscesses,pneumonia, endocarditis, myocarditis, and meningitis. Diseasecan be severe or even fatal in infants younger than 3 monthsof age
s.

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-08-2010, 07:47 PM
Spinal cord

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Spinal_cord_direv.svg/200px-Spinal_cord_direv.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinal_cord_direv.svg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinal_cord_direv.svg)
The spinal cord nested in the vertebral column (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spine_(anatomy))


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Spinalcord_trirev.svg/200px-Spinalcord_trirev.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinalcord_trirev.svg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinalcord_trirev.svg)
A closer look at the spinal cord


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Medulla_spinalis_-_Section_-_English.svg)
Cross-section through cervical spinal cord


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/ed/Spinalcord_trirev_rexedlamina.svg/200px-Spinalcord_trirev_rexedlamina.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinalcord_trirev_rexedlamina.svg)


Spinal cord tracts


The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron) and support cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia) that extends from the brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain) (the medulla (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medulla_oblongata) specifically). The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system). The spinal cord extends down to the space between the first and second lumbar vertebrae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumbar_vertebrae); it does not extend the entire length of the vertebral column. It is around 45 cm long (18 inches) in men and around 43 cm (17 inches) long in women. The enclosing bony vertebral column (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spine_(anatomy)) protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmission) between the brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain) and the rest of the body but also contains neural circuits that can independently control numerous reflexes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflex) and central pattern generators (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_pattern_generator). The spinal cord has three major functions: A. Serve as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord. B. Serve as a conduit for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord. C. Serve as a center for coordinating certain reflexes.
D

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-09-2010, 04:29 PM
Dermatitis




Dermatitishttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Dermititis10.JPG/230px-Dermititis10.JPG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dermititis10.JPG)
Dermatitis of the hand.

Dermatitis is a blanket term (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blanket_term) meaning "inflammation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation) of the skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin)" (e.g. rash (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rash)). There are several different types of dermatitis. The different kinds usually have in common an allergic reaction (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergy) to specific allergens (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergen). The term may be used to refer to eczema (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eczema), which is also known as dermatitis eczema or eczematous dermatitis. A diagnosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagnosis) of eczema often implies atopic dermatitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atopic_dermatitis) (childhood eczema), but without proper context, it means nothing more than a "rash

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نهى ابراهيم الجاك
03-09-2010, 10:10 PM
السكتة الدماغية Stroke
تحدث نتيجة لخلل في التروية الدموية للمخ والناتج عن تضيق أو انسداد أحد الأوعية الدموية بسبب جلطة في الغالب مما يؤدي إلى توقف امداد الأكسجين والمغذيات والذي يحدث تلف في أنسجة الدماغ
A stroke is caused by the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue.
الأعراض
The most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, most often on one side of the body. Other symptoms include: confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech; difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; fainting or unconsciousness.
The effects of a stroke depend on which part of the brain is injured and how severely it is affected. A very severe stroke can cause sudden death
الحرف القادم E

محمدالمبارك
03-10-2010, 12:20 PM
EHO
Environmental Health Officer. An employee of the local authority, involved in food-borne disease outbreaks amongst other things. Works closely with the local HPU (http://www.publichealthy.com/glossary.htm#hpu)

محمدالمبارك
03-10-2010, 12:22 PM
http://www.publichealthy.com/glossary.htm

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-11-2010, 09:10 PM
شكرا ود المبارك على الرابط الذي يهتم بإختصارات التي تهتم العامة

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-11-2010, 09:25 PM
ozone layer
is a layer in Earth's atmosphere (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_atmosphere) which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone) (O3). This layer absorbs 93–99% of the sun (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun)'s high frequency ultraviolet light (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultraviolet_light), which is potentially damaging to life on earth.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer#cite_note-NASA-0) Over 91% of the ozone in Earth's atmosphere is present here.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer#cite_note-NASA-0) It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratosphere) from approximately 10 km to 50 km above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer#cite_note-1) The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Fabry) and Henri Buisson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Buisson). Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G._M._B._Dobson), who developed a simple spectrophotometer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrophotometry) (the Dobsonmeter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dobson_spectrometer)) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations which continues to operate today. The "Dobson unit (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dobson_unit)", a convenient measure of the columnar density (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_density) of ozone overhead, is named in his honour.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-13-2010, 10:42 AM
Reservoir of adesease
refers to the long-term host (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host_(biology)) of the pathogen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen) of an

infectious disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease). It is often the case that hosts do not get the disease carried by the pathogen or it is carried as a subclinical infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subclinical_infection) and so asymptomatic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asymptomatic) and non-lethal. Once discovered, natural reservoirs elucidate the complete life cycle of infectious diseases, providing effective prevention (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevention) and control. Examples of natural reservoirs are:

Field mice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse), for hantaviruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hantavirus) and Lassa fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lassa_fever)
Marmots (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marmots), black rats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rats), prairie dogs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prairie_dog), chipmunks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chipmunk) and squirrels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squirrel) for bubonic plague (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubonic_plague)
Armadillos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armadillo) and opossums (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opossum) for Chagas disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagas_disease) and several species of New World (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_World)Leishmania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania)
Ticks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick) for babesiosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babesiosis) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Mountain_spotted_fever)
Ground squirrels, porcupines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porcupine), and chipmunks for Colorado tick fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_tick_fever)
Mosquitoes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito) for filariasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filariasis) and malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria)
Snails (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snail) for schistosomiasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schistosomiasis) and swimmer's itch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swimmer%27s_itch)
Pigs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig) for cestode (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cestoda) worm infections
Raccoons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raccoons), skunks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skunks), foxes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fox) and bats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat) for rabies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies)
Shellfish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shellfish) for cholera (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera)
Fowl (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fowl) (ducks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duck) and geese (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goose)) for avian influenza (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avian_influenza)
Bats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bats), the reservoir for Nipah (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nipah), Hendra (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hendra), Rabies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies) and SARS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SARS)
Dogs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog) and wild canids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canid) for Leishmania infantum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania_infantum), the cause of infantile visceral leishmaniasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visceral_leishmaniasis)
Cats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat), for Bartonella (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartonella) (aka Cat scratch disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_scratch_disease))
Gerbils (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerbil) for Leishmania major (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania_major), the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutaneous_leishmaniasis) in the Old World (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World)
Rock hyrax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_hyrax) for Leishmania aethiopica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania_aethiopica) and, probably, certain strains of Leishmania tropica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania_tropica), the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutaneous_leishmaniasis) in the Old World (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World)
Some diseases have no non-human reservoir: poliomyelitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poliomyelitis) and smallpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox) are prominent examples.
The natural reservoir of some diseases remain unknown. This is the case of the Ebola (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola) disease, which is caused by a virus

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-14-2010, 01:33 PM
Endocrine system




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Illu_endocrine_system.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illu_endocrine_system.png) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illu_endocrine_system.png)
Major endocrine glands. (Male (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Male) on the left, female (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female) on the right.) 1. Pineal gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland) 2. Pituitary gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pituitary_gland) 3. Thyroid gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_gland) 4. Thymus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymus) 5. Adrenal gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_gland) 6. Pancreas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas) 7. Ovary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovary) 8. Testis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testis)


The endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone to regulate the body. The endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nervous_system). Hormones regulate many functions of an organism, including mood (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mood_(psychology)), growth and development (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_development_(biology)), tissue function (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tissue_(biology)), and metabolism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolism). The field of study that deals with disorders of endocrine glands is endocrinology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrinology), a branch of the wider field of internal medicine.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-16-2010, 05:40 PM
Macrophage

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Macrophage.jpg/250px-Macrophage.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macrophage.jpg)
A macrophage of a mouse (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse) stretching its "arms" (Pseudopodia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudopod)) to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogens)


Macrophages are white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell) within tissues, produced by the division of monocytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocyte). Human macrophages are about 21 micrometres (0.00083 in) in diameter.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophage#cite_note-0) Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phagocyte), acting in both non-specific defense (innate immunity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_immunity)) as well as to help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_immunity)) of vertebrate animals. Their role is to phagocytose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phagocytosis) (engulf and then digest) cellular debris and pathogens (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen) either as stationary or as mobile cells, and to stimulate lymphocytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocyte) and other immune cells to respond to the pathogen. They can be identified by specific expression of a number of proteins including CD14 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD14), CD11b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD11b), F4/80 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F4/80) (mice)/EMR1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMR1) (human), Lysozyme (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysozyme) M, MAC-1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MAC-1)/MAC-3 and CD68 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD68) by flow cytometry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_cytometry) or immunohistochemical staining (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunohistochemical_staining).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophage#cite_note-pmid16213494-1) They move by action of Amoeboid movement (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoeboid_movement)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-18-2010, 04:09 PM
Eosinophil

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Eosinophil_blood_smear.JPG/250px-Eosinophil_blood_smear.JPG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eosinophil_blood_smear.JPG) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eosinophil_blood_smear.JPG)
Eosinophil under the microscope (40x) from a peripheral blood smear (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_film). Red blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cell) surround the eosinophil, two platelets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet) at the top left corner.


Eosinophil granulocytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulocytes), usually called eosinophils (or, less commonly, acidophils), are white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell) that are one of the immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system) components responsible for combating multicellular parasites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasite) and certain infections (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection) in vertebrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebrate). Along with mast cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell), they also control mechanisms associated with allergy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergy) and asthma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asthma). They are granulocytes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulocyte) that develop during haematopoiesis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haematopoiesis) in the bone marrow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_marrow) before migrating into blood.
These cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)) are eosinophilic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eosinophilic) or 'acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid)-loving': Normally transparent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transparency_(optics)), they appear brick-red
after staining (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staining) with eosin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eosin), a red dye (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dye), using the Romanowsky method (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanowsky_stain). The staining is
concentrated in small granules (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granule_(cell_biology)) within the cellular cytoplasm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoplasm), which contain many chemical mediators, such as histamine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histamine) and proteins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein) such as eosinophil peroxidase (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eosinophil_peroxidase), ribonuclease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribonuclease) (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deoxyribonuclease), lipase (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipase), plasminogen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasminogen), and major basic protein (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_basic_protein). These mediators are released by a process called degranulation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degranulation) following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxin) to both parasite and host tissues.
In normal individuals eosinophils make up about 1-6% of white blood cells, and are about 12-17 micrometers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micrometre) in size.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eosinophil_granulocyte#cite_note-0) They are found in the medulla (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medulla_oblongata) and the junction between the cortex (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cortex_(anatomy)) and medulla of the thymus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymus), and, in the lower gastrointestinal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrointestinal) tract, ovary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovary), uterus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterus), spleen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spleen), and lymph nodes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymph_nodes), but not in the lung (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung), skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin), esophagus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esophagus), or some other internal organs[vague (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style)] under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation.
L (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eosinophil_granulocyte#cite_note-1)

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-20-2010, 01:20 PM
Lactobacillus
is a genus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus) of Gram-positive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-positive) facultative anaerobic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facultative_anaerobic) or microaerophilic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microaerophilic) bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria).unreliable source? (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Reliable_sources) They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactic_acid_bacteria) group, named as such because most of its members convert lactose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactose) and other sugars (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugars) to lactic acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactic_acid). They are common and usually benign. In humans they are present in the vagina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vagina) and the gastrointestinal tract (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrointestinal_tract), where they are symbiotic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiotic) and make up a small portion of the gut flora (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut_flora). Many species are prominent in decaying plant material. The production of lactic acid makes its environment acidic, which inhibits the growth of some harmful bacteria. Several members of the genus have had their genome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genome) sequenced.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Lactobacillus_sp_01.png/240px-Lactobacillus_sp_01.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lactobacillus_sp_01.png)
Phylum:Firmicutes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes)
Class:Bacilli (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacilli)
Order:Lactobacillales (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactobacillales)
Family:Lactobacillaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactobacillaceae)
Genus:Lactobacillus

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Hibat
03-20-2010, 02:22 PM
Lethal Dose, LD50

(abbreviation for “Lethal Dose, 50%”), LC50 (Lethal Concentration, 50%) or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time) of a toxic substance or radiation is the dose50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927. It is being phased out in some jurisdictions in favor of tests such as the fixed dose procedure; however the concept, and calculation of the median lethal dose for comparison purposes, is still widely used. required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD

As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration. Another weakness is that it measures acute toxicity only (as opposed to chronic toxicity at lower doses), and does not take into account toxic effects that do not result in death but are nonetheless serious (e.g. brain damage). There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans, and vice versa. In other words, a relatively high LD50 does not necessarily mean a substance is harmless, but a very low one is always a cause for concern.




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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-21-2010, 11:31 AM
Encephalitis
is an acute (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_(medical)) inflammation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation) of the brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain)Encephalitis with meningitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meningitis) is known as meningoencephalitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meningoencephalitis)


Viral encephalitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_encephalitis)
Viral encephalitis can be due either to the direct effects of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection. A common cause of encephalitis in humans is herpes (HSE).
Bacterial and other

It can be caused by a bacterial (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria) infection such as bacterial meningitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meningitis) spreading directly to the brain (primary encephalitis), or may be a complication of a current infectious disease syphilis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilis) (secondary encephalitis). Certain parasitic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic) or protozoal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protozoa) infestations, such as toxoplasmosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxoplasmosis), malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria), or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_amoebic_meningoencephalitis), can also cause encephalitis in people with compromised (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_deficiency) immune systems (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system). Lyme disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyme_disease) and/or Bartonella henselae may also cause encephalitis.
Another cause is granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.
Symptoms

Patients with encephalitis suffer from fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever), headache (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache) and photophobia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photophobia) with weakness and seizures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seizures) also common. Less commonly, stiffness of the neck (nuchal rigidity) can occur with rare cases of patients also suffering from stiffness of the limbs, slowness in movement and clumsiness depending on which specific part of the brain is involved. The symptoms of encephalitis are caused by the brain's defense mechanisms activating to get rid of the infection. Other symptoms can include drowsiness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drowsiness) and coughing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coughing)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-23-2010, 11:20 AM
Staphylococcus


Staphylococcushttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Staphylococcus_aureus_01.jpg/240px-Staphylococcus_aureus_01.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Staphylococcus_aureus_01.jpg)SEM (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_electron_microscopy)
micrograph (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micrograph) of S. aureus colonies; note the grape-like clustering common to Staphylococcus species.Scientific classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria)
Phylum:Firmicutes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes)
Class:Bacilli (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacilli)
Order:Bacillales (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillales)
Family:Staphylococcaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcaceae)
Genus:Staphylococcus
Rosenbach 1884SpeciesS. afermentans (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_afermentans&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. aureus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_aureus)
S. auricularis (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_auricularis&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. capitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_capitis)
S. caprae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_caprae)
S. cohnii (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_cohnii&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. epidermidis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_epidermidis)
S. felis (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_felis&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. haemolyticus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_haemolyticus)
S. hominis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_hominis)
S. intermedius (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_intermedius&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. lugdunensis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_lugdunensis)
S. pettenkoferi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_pettenkoferi)
S. saprophyticus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_saprophyticus)
S. schleiferi (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_schleiferi&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. sciuri (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_sciuri&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. simulans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_simulans)
S. vitulus (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Staphylococcus_vitulus&action=edit&redlink=1)
S. warneri (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_warneri)
S. xylosus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_xylosus)

Not to be confused with streptococcus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcus).
Staphylococcus (from the Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language): σταφυλή, staphylē, "bunch of grapes" and κόκκος, k&oacute;kkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-positive)bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterium). Under the microscope (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microscope) they appear round (cocci), and form in grape (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape)-like clusters.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus#cite_note-Sherris-0)
The Staphylococcus genus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus) includes thirty-two species and eight sub-species.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus#cite_note-1) Most are harmless and reside normally on the skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin) and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus#cite_note-Brock-2)
Staphylococcus can cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and other animals through either toxin production or penetration. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, as it can grow in improperly-stored food
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-24-2010, 08:16 PM
sweat
transpiration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transpiration), or diaphoresis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaphoresis) ) is the production of a fluid
, consisting primarily of water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water) as well as various dissolved solids (chiefly chlorides), that is excreted by the sweat glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweat_gland) in the skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin) of mammals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspiration#cite_note-perspiration-0) Sweat contains the chemicals or odorants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odorant)2-methylphenol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cresol) (o-cresol) and 4-methylphenol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-Cresol) (p-cresol), as well as a small amount of urea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urea).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Amanda_Fran%C3%A7ozo_At_The_Runner_Sports_Fragment .jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Amanda_Fran%C3%A7ozo_At_The_Runner_Sports_Fra gment.jpg)


The facial sweat of a runner

Perspiration (sweating, transpiration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transpiration), or diaphoresis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaphoresis) ) is the production of a fluid,
In humans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human), sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoregulation), although it has been proposed that components of male sweat can act as pheromonal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pheromone) cues.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspiration#cite_note-sweat-1) Evaporation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation) of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to the latent heat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latent_heat) of evaporation of water. Hence, in hot (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature) weather, or when the individual's muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Sweating is increased by nervousness and nausea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea) and decreased by cold. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog), accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharynx). Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals,[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspiration#cite_note-2)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspiration#cite_note-3) relatively few, such as humans and horses, produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down.

t

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-28-2010, 09:28 AM
Trachoma
A chronic inflammatory eye disease due to infection with a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma results in blindness so frequently that it places a huge burden a year on world health funding. The disease goes by a number of names such as sandy blight.
The transmission of t5he agent of trachoma is mainly among children and from children to women during child care. Key risk factors include low socioeconomic status and inadequate supplies of water.
Trachoma affects approximately 500 million people worldwide, primarily in rural communities of the developing world and in the arid areas of tropical and subtropical zones. About 6-9 million people worldwide are currently blind and many more have suffered partial loss of vision from trachoma. Australia is the only developed country where trachoma is still a significant health problem; there it affects an estimated 100,000 people. The mass treatment of trachoma with tetracycline (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6092) ointment is effective in the short term, but the disease usually returns within 6-12 months to pretreatment levels in a community. Trachoma can now also be treated with the antibiotic azithromycin (brand name: Zithromax) (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=863). Promotion of increased face-washing helps further to control the disease. Surgery of the scarred eyelids can prevent continued damage to the cornea by turned-in lashes

A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
03-31-2010, 01:02 PM
Anthrax


Classification and external resourceshttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Bacillus_anthracis_Gram.jpg/230px-Bacillus_anthracis_Gram.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bacillus_anthracis_Gram.jpg)
Microphotograph of a Gram stain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_stain) the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which causes anthrax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ICD-10_codes)
(http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/?gLinkGroupLinkMajor.htm+LinkGroup22minor) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ICD-9_codes) (http://www.icd9data.com/getICD9Code.ashx?icd9=022) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diseases_Database) (http://www.diseasesdatabase.com/ddb1203.htm) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MedlinePlus) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001325.htm) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMedicine) (http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic148.htm) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_Subject_Headings)
(http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2010/MB_cgi?field=uid&term=D000881)
Anthrax is an acute (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_(medical)) disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease) caused by Bacillus anthracis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_anthracis). It affects both humans and other animals. Most forms of the disease are lethal. There are effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment.
Like many other members of the genus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus) Bacillus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus), Bacillus anthracis can form dormant spores (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore) that are able to survive in harsh conditions for extremely long periods of time—even decades or centuries.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax#cite_note-0) Such spores can be found on all continents, even Antarctica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctica).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax#cite_note-1) When spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host they may reactivate and multiply rapidly.
Anthrax commonly infects wild and domesticated herbivorous mammals which ingest or inhale the spores while grazing. Ingestion is thought to be the most common route by which herbivores contract anthrax. Carnivores living in the same environment may become infected by consuming infected animals. Diseased animals can spread anthrax to humans, either by direct contact (e.g. inoculation of infected blood to broken skin) or consumption of diseased animals' flesh.
Anthrax spores can be produced in vitro (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro) and used as a biological weapon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_weapon). Anthrax does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another; it is spread by spores. These spores can be transported by clothing or shoes. The dead body of an animal that died of anthrax can also be a source of anthrax spores.
X

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-02-2010, 03:50 PM
X-ray




(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray#searchInput)
This article is about the form of radiation. For the method of imaging, see Radiography (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiography). For imaging in a medical context, see Radiology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiology). For other uses, see X-ray (disambiguation) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_(disambiguation)).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Anna_Berthe_Roentgen.gif (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anna_Berthe_Roentgen.gif) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anna_Berthe_Roentgen.gif)



X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation). X-rays have a wavelength (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavelength) in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanometer), corresponding to frequencies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency) in the range 30 petahertz (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertz) to 30 exahertz (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertz) (3 × 1016 Hz to 3 × 1019 Hz) and energies in the range 120 eV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronvolt) to 120 keV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KeV). They are shorter in wavelength than UV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV) rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called R&ouml;ntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Conrad R&ouml;ntgen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_R%C3%B6ntgen), who is generally credited as their discoverer, and who had named them X-rays to signify an unknown type of radiation.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray#cite_note-squires-2):1-2
X-rays from about 0.12 to 12 keV (10 to 0.10 nm wavelength), are classified as "soft" X-rays, and from about 12 to 120 keV (0.10 to 0.010 nm wavelength) as "hard" X-rays, due to their penetrating abilities.
Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagnosis_(medical)) radiography (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiography) and crystallography (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_crystallography). As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonomy) used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. By contrast, soft X-rays can hardly be said to penetrate matter at all; for instance, the attenuation length of 600 eV (~ 2 nm) x-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer[4] (http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ffast/ffast.pl?Formula=H2O&gtype=5&range=S&lower=0.300&upper=2.00&density=1.00) X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation), and exposure to them can be a health hazard.
The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray) has changed in recent decades. Originally, the electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_tube) had a longer wavelength (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavelength) than the radiation emitted by radioactive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive) nuclei (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_nucleus) (gamma rays).[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray#cite_note-Dendy-3) So older literature distinguished between X- and gamma radiation on the basis of wavelength, with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 10−11 m, defined as gamma rays.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray#cite_note-4) However, as shorter wavelength continuous spectrum "X-ray" sources such as linear accelerators (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_accelerator) and longer wavelength "gamma ray" emitters were discovered, the wavelength bands largely overlapped. The two types of radiation are now usually distinguished by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons outside the nucleus, while gamma rays are emitted by the .

A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-03-2010, 01:38 PM
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:azq0LKLr18arOM:http://www.lastrefuge.co.uk/images-database/david-spears/smalls1/anopheles-larva1-x117-new2.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.lastrefuge.co.uk/images-database/david-spears/smalls1/anopheles-larva1-x117-new2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.lastrefuge.co.uk/php/sitesearch2.php%3Fq%3D%252Bclouds%2B%252Bhill%2B%2 52Bimaging&usg=__sgP7PvglfiGtP7iwst2_u4tYJnk=&h=175&w=175&sz=10&hl=en&start=4&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=azq0LKLr18arOM:&tbnh=100&tbnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Danopheles%2Bsp%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DX%26rlz%3D1T4SKPB_enUS359AE360%26tbs%3Disch:1) http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:XOIh64gIYWmVaM:http://aramel.free.fr/Anopheles-sp-2.jpg (http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://aramel.free.fr/Anopheles-sp-2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://aramel.free.fr/INSECTES15-3.shtml&usg=__AbBVs32RxlBIXLMUvBfLFaiUomw=&h=350&w=574&sz=13&hl=en&start=5&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=XOIh64gIYWmVaM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Danopheles%2Bsp%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DX%26rlz%3D1T4SKPB_enUS359AE360%26tbs%3Disch:1)

Anopheles,
. There are approximately 460 recognised species: while over 100 can transmit human malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria), only 30-40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmodium) that cause malaria which affects humans in endemic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endemic_(ecology)) areas. Anopheles gambiae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles_gambiae) is one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the most dangerous malaria parasite species - Plasmodium falciparum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmodium_falciparum).
The name comes from the Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language) αν an meaning not and ωφελής &oacute;phelos meaning profit and translates to useless .[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles#cite_note-dict-0)
Some species of Anopheles also can serve as the vectors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_(epidemiology)) for canine heartworm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heartworm) Dirofilaria immitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirofilaria_immitis), the Filariidae Wuchereria bancrofti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuchereria_bancrofti) and Brugia malayi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brugia_malayi), and viruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus) like the one that is the cause of O'nyong'nyong (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O%27nyong%27nyong) fever. There is an association of brain tumor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_tumor) incidence and malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria), suggesting that the anopheles might transmit a virus or other agent that could cause a brain tumor. [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles#cite_note-1)
Mosquitoes in other genera (Aedes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes), Culex (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culex)) can also serve as vectors of disease agents.
S

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-04-2010, 11:31 PM
Shrimp

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/03/Heterocarpus_ensifer.jpg/220px-Heterocarpus_ensifer.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Heterocarpus_ensifer.jpg)Heterocarpus ensifer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterocarpus_ensifer)Scientific classification (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification)Kingdom:Animalia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal)
Phylum:Arthropoda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod)
Subphylum:Crustacea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crustacean)
Class:Malacostraca (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malacostraca)
Order:Decapoda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decapoda)
Suborder:Pleocyemata (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleocyemata)
Infraorder:Caridea
Dana (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Dwight_Dana), 1852 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrimp#cite_note-Grave-0)
Shrimp are swimming (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquatic_locomotion), decapod (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decapoda) crustaceans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crustacean) classified in the infraorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infraorder) Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresh_water) and salt water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seawater). Adult shrimp are filter feeding (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filter_feeder) benthic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benthic) animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoaling_and_schooling) and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important food source for larger animals from fish to whales. They have a high resistance to toxins in polluted areas, and may contribute to high toxin levels in their predators. Together with prawns (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prawn), shrimp are widely caught and farmed for human consumption.
P

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-07-2010, 05:15 PM
Parkinson's disease



"Parkinson's" redirects here. For other uses, see Parkinson's (disambiguation) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson%27s_(disambiguation)).
Parkinson's diseasehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_sketc h_1886.jpg/230px-Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_sketc h_1886.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_ sketch_1886.jpg)
Illustration of the Parkinson disease by Sir William Richard Gowers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Richard_Gowers) from A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System in 1886 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ICD-10_codes) (http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/?gf00.htm+f023) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ICD-9_codes) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diseases_Database) (http://www.diseasesdatabase.com/ddb9651.htm) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MedlinePlus) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000755.htm) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMedicine)Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system) that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_skill), speech, and other functions.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson's_disease#cite_note-Jankovic2008-0)
Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_disorder). It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement (bradykinesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradykinesia)) and a loss of physical movement (akinesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akinesia)) in extreme cases. The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_cortex) by the basal ganglia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_ganglia), normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine), which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopaminergic_neuron) of the brain. Secondary symptoms may include high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems. PD is both chronic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_(medicine)) and progressive.
PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive parkinsonism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinsonism), a term which refers to the syndrome of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. PD is also called "primary parkinsonism" or "idiopathic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idiopathic) PD" (classically meaning having no known cause). While many forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idiopathic), "secondary" cases may result from toxicity most notably of drugs, head trauma, or other medical disorders. The disease is named after English apothecary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apothecary) James Parkinson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Parkinson), who made a detailed description of the disease in his essay: "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" (1817).
E

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-08-2010, 05:23 PM
Environmental impact assessment EIA





http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Scale_of_justice_2.svg/100px-Scale_of_justice_2.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Scale_of_justice_2.svg)Environmental law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_law) Pollution Control and RemediationAir (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_law)
Hazardous Substances (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hazardous_substances_law&action=edit&redlink=1)
Waste (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_law)
Water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality_law)
Resource Conservation and ManagementFisheries (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fisheries_law&action=edit&redlink=1)
Forests (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Forestry_law&action=edit&redlink=1)
Historic Sites
Minerals
Oil & Gas
Parks
Species
Water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_law)Planning, Land Use and InfrastructureImpact Review
Municipal Planning
Land use
Transportation Infrastructure
Energy Infrastructure
Environmental justice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_justice)Related TopicsAdministrative law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_law)
Bankruptcy law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bankruptcy_law)
Energy law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_law)
Insurance law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance_law)
International law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_law)v (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Environmental_law) • d (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_talk:Environmental_law) • e (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Environmental_law&action=edit)
An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impact—positive or negative—that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the natural, social and economic aspects.
The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts to decide whether to proceed with the project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=International_Association_for_Impa ct_Assessment&action=edit&redlink=1) (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biophysics), social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made."[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_assessment#cite_note-0)
After an EIA, the precautionary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle) and polluter pays principles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polluter_pays_principle) may be applied to prevent, limit, or require strict liability (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strict_liability) or insurance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance) coverage to a project, based on its likely harms. Environmental impact assessments are sometimes
controversial
















T

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-13-2010, 11:45 AM
Tick

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Adult_deer_tick%28cropped%29.jpg/220px-Adult_deer_tick%28cropped%29.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adult_deer_tick(cropped).jpg)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Adult_deer_tick%28cropped%29.jpg/220px-Adult_deer_tick%28cropped%29.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adult_deer_tick(cropped).jpg)
Tick is the common name for the small arachnids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnid) in superfamily (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomic_rank) Ixodoidea that, along with other mites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mite), constitute the Acarina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acarina). Ticks are ectoparasites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ectoparasite) (external parasites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasite)), living by hematophagy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematophagy) on the blood (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood) of mammals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal), birds (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird), and occasionally reptiles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reptile) and amphibians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibian). Ticks are vectors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_(epidemiology)) of a number of diseases, including Lyme disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyme_disease), Q fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_fever), Colorado tick fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_tick_fever), tularemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tularemia), tick-borne relapsing fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relapsing_fever), babesiosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babesiosis), ehrlichiosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrlichiosis) and Tick-borne meningoencephalitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick-borne_meningoencephalitis), as well as anaplasmosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaplasmosis) in cattle and canine jaundice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick#cite_note-0)





Ticks are blood-feeding parasites that are often found in tall grass (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grass) and shrubs where they will wait to attach to a passing host. A tick will attach itself to its host by inserting its chelicerae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelicerae) (cutting mandibles) and hypostome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypostome_(tick)) (feeding tube) into the skin. The hypostome is covered with recurved teeth and serves as a hammer.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick#cite_note-1)
Physical contact is not the only method of transportation for ticks. Ticks can't jump or fly, although they may drop from their perch and fall onto a host. Some species stalk the host from ground level, emerging from cracks or crevices located in the woods or even inside a home or kennel, where infestations of "seed ticks" (the six-legged stage of newborn ticks) can attack in numbers up to 30,000 at a time[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]. Weak or elderly dogs, puppies, and cats are particularly endangered and can die from anemia from a sudden influx of seed ticks[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]. Seed ticks also attack horses, cattle, moose, lions and other mammals, causing anemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemia), various diseases, paralysis and even death. Such infestations can be difficult to detect until thousands have attached themselves to an animal and eradication can be difficult.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick#cite_note-2)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick#cite_note-3)

Mature ticks are harder to see. Frequent grooming and chemicals for control may control the spread of seed ticks and adults. [5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick#cite_note-4)
Changes in temperature and day length are some of the factors signalling a tick to seek a host. Ticks can detect heat emitted or carbon dioxide respired from a nearby host. They will generally drop off the animal when full, but this may take several days. In some cases ticks will live for some time on the blood of an animal. Ticks are more active outdoors in warm weather, but can attack a host at any time.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tick#cite_note-5)
Ticks can be found in most wooded or forested regions throughout the world. They are especially common in areas where there are deer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deer) trails or human tracks. Ticks are especially abundant near water, where warm-blooded animals come to drink, and in meadows wherever shrubs and brush provide woody surfaces and cover.

K

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-14-2010, 01:50 PM
Kissing Bug
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Pgeniculatus2.jpg (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Pgeniculatus2.jpg)
The members of Triatominae (trī·ə′t&auml;m·ə′nē), a subfamily of Reduviidae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reduviidae), are also known as conenose bugs, kissing bugs, assassin bugs or triatomines. Most of the 130 or more species of this subfamily are haematophagous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haematophagy), i.e. feed on vertebrate blood; a very few species feed on other invertebrates (Sandoval et al. 2000, 2004). They are mainly found and widespread in the Americas, with a few species present in Asia, Africa and Australia. These bugs usually share shelter with nesting vertebrates, from which they suck blood. In areas where Chagas disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagas_disease) occurs (from the southern United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States) to southern Argentina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina)), all triatomine species are potential vectors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_(epidemiology)) of the Chagas disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trypanosoma_cruzi), but only those species (such as Triatoma infestans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triatoma_infestans) and Rhodnius prolixus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodnius_prolixus)) that are well adapted to live with humans are considered important vectors.


Biological aspectshttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Rp-nymphs-adult.JPG/600px-Rp-nymphs-adult.JPG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rp-nymphs-adult.JPG) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rp-nymphs-adult.JPG)
Rhodnius prolixus nymphs and adult




Triatomines undergo incomplete metamorphosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemimetabolism). A wingless first instar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instar) nymph hatches from an egg, about the size of the tip of a fork (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fork). It passes successively through 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instars. Finally, the fifth instar turns into an adult, acquiring two pair of wings.


All triatomine nymph (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymph_(biology)) instars and adults are haematophagous and require the stability of a sheltered environment where they aggregate. Most species are associated with wild nesting vertebrates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebrate) and are named "sylvatic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylvatic)" triatomines. These live in ground burrows with rodents (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodent) or armadillos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armadillo), or in tree-dwellings with bats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat), birds, sloths (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sloth) or opossums (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opossum). Few species (5%) live in human dwellings or in the surroundings of human houses (peridomicile) in the shelters of domestic animals, these are named "domestic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home)" species. Many sylvatic species are in process of domiciliation ("semidomestic (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Semidomestic&action=edit&redlink=1)").
Behavior

Most triatomines aggregate in refuges during day and search for blood during night when the host is asleep and the air is cooler. Odors as well as heat guide these insects to the host. Carbon dioxide emanating from breath, as well as ammonia, short chain amines and carboxylic acids from skin, hair and exocrine glands from vertebrate animals, are among the volatiles that attract triatomines. Vision also serves triatomines for orientation. During night, adults of diverse species fly to houses attracted by light.
Adults produce a pungent odour (isobutyric acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isobutyric_acid)) when disturbed, and are also capable of producing a particular sound by rubbing the rostrum over a stridulatory sulcus under head (stridulation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stridulation)).
Epidemiology

Domestic and sylvatic species can carry the Chagas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagas) parasite to humans and wild mammals; birds are immune to the parasite. T. cruzi transmission is carried mainly from human to human by domestic kissing bugs; from the vertebrate to the bug by blood, and from the bug to the vertebrate by the insect's feces and not by its saliva as occurs in most bloodsucking arthropod vectors such as Malaria mosquitoes.
Triatomine infestation especially affects unkempt dwellings. One can recognize the presence of triatomines in a house by its feces, exuviae, eggs and individuals themselves. Triatomines characteristically leave 2 kinds of feces (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feces) like strikes on walls of infected houses; one is white with uric acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uric_acid), the other is dark (black) containing haem (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haem). Whitish or pinkish eggs can be seen in wall crevices. After having had a blood meal the insects sometimes show a limited mobility and can be identified easily.
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Hibat
04-15-2010, 02:39 PM
GAVI : Global Alliance For Vaccines and Immunization




GAVI Alliance (launched in 2000) is a global health partnership representing stakeholders in immunization from both private and public sectors: developing world and donor governments, private sector philanthropists such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the financial community, developed and developing country vaccine manufacturers, research and technical institutes, civil society organisations and multilateral organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank.


Working together, Alliance members achieve objectives that no single agency or group could achieve:




accelerate access to existing underused vaccines;
strengthen health and immunization systems in countries;
introduce innovative new immunization technology, including vaccines.

This prevents millions of deaths worldwide and contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal for child health -- a two-thirds reduction in the number of deaths in the under-fives by 2015





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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-16-2010, 11:29 AM
ICU-Intensive-care unit


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Intensivstation_%2801%29_2007-03-03.jpg/220px-Intensivstation_%2801%29_2007-03-03.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Intensivstation_(01)_2007-03-03.jpg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Intensivstation_(01)_2007-03-03.jpg)
ICU room


An intensive care unit (ICU), critical care unit (CCU), intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) is a specialized department used in many countries' hospitals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospital) that provides intensive care medicine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intensive_care_medicine). Many hospitals also have designated intensive care areas for certain specialities of medicine, as dictated by the needs and available resources of each hospital. The naming is not rigidly standardized.
Equipment and systems
Common equipment in an ICU includes mechanical ventilator (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_ventilator) to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intubation) or a tracheotomy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tracheotomy) opening; cardiac monitors including telemetry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telemetry), external pacemakers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacemakers), and defibrillators (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defibrillators); dialysis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialysis) equipment for renal problems; equipment for the constant monitoring (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_monitors) of bodily functions; a web of intravenous lines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous_fluids), feeding tubes, nasogastric tubes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasogastric_intubation), suction pumps, drains and catheters; and a wide array of drugs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacology) to treat the main condition(s). Medically induced comas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induced_coma), analgesics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgesic), and induced sedation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedation) reduce pain and prevent secondary infections.
Quality of care

Medicine suggests a relation between ICU volume and quality of care for mechanically ventilated patients.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intensive-care_unit#cite_note-2) After adjustment for severity of illness, demographic variables, and characteristics of the ICUs (including staffing by intensivists), higher ICU volume was significantly associated with lower ICU and hospital mortality rates. Typically, patient to nurse ratio is what determines the care. A ratio of 2 patients to 1 nurse is recommended for a medical ICU. This is unlike the ratio of 4:1 or 5:1 ratio on the medical floors
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-17-2010, 01:22 PM
Urethritis
is inflammation of the urethra (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urethra). The main symptom is dysuria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysuria), which is painful or difficult urination
The disease is classified as either gonococcocal urethritis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonorrhea) or non-gonococcal urethritis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-gonococcal_urethritis) (NGU), based on its causation. NGU, sometimes called non-specific urethritis (NSU), has both infectious and non-infectious causes.
Causes include:

Adenovirus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenovirus)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli) (UPEC)
Herpes simplex (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpes_simplex)
Mycoplasma genitalium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycoplasma_genitalium)
Reiter's syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reiter%27s_syndrome)
Trichomonas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichomonas) spp.
Isotretinoin therapy
Doses of isotretinoin greater than 60 milligrams/square meter induced URETHRITIS. [1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urethritis#cite_note-0) Urethritis was reported in 2 male patients who were being treated with isotretinoin for acne vulgaris. After discontinuation and treatment with antibiotics, urethritis resolved. [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urethritis#cite_note-1)
Symptoms

In men, purulent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purulent) discharge usually indicates a urethritis of gonococcal nature, while clear discharge indicates urethritis of non-gonococcal nature. Urethritis is difficult to diagnose in women because discharge may not be present, however, the symptoms of dysuria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysuria) and
frequency may be present
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-18-2010, 01:22 PM
Side effects
Problems that occur when treatment goes beyond the desired effect. Or problems that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effect.
Example -- A hemorrhage from the use of too much anticoagulant (such as heparin) is a side effect caused by treatment going beyond the desired effect.
Example -- The common side effects of cancer treatment including fatigue, nausea, vomiting, decreased blood cell counts, hair loss (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10560), and mouth sores are instances of side effects that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effect. Drug manufacturers are required to list all known side effects of their products. When side effects of necessary medication are severe, sometimes a second medication, lifestyle change, dietary change, or other measure may help to minimize them.
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Hibat
04-18-2010, 02:59 PM
Saturation:

State of an organic compound in which all its carbon atoms are linked by single covalent bonds. Saturation also means the state of a solution or vapour in which it has the highest possible concentration of the dissolved or vaporized material at a given pressure and temperature. Though it is sometimes possible to bring about supersaturation (a concentration exceeding the equilibrium value), such solutions or vapours are unstable and spontaneously revert to the saturated state, accompanied by the transformation of the excess material to the solid or liquid form (precipitation).





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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-20-2010, 02:10 PM
Nitrous oxide,
commonly known as laughing gas and nozz, is a chemical compound (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_compound) with the formula (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_formula) N (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen)2O (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen). At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flammability) gas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas), with a pleasant, slightly sweet
odor and taste. It is used in surgery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgery) and dentistry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dentistry) for its anesthetic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anesthesia) and analgesic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgesic) effects. It is known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphoric) effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recreational_drug_use) as a dissociative (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative) hallucinogen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallucinogen). It is also used as an oxidizer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidizing_agent) in rocketry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocketry) and in motor racing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto_racing) to increase the power output of engines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piston_engine). At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. For example, nitrous oxide in a test tube will re-ignite a smoldering splint.
Nitrous oxide reacts with ozone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone) and is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratosphere) ozone. Nitrous oxide is also a major greenhouse gas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas) and air pollutant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollutant). Considered over a 100 year period, it has 298 times more impact per unit weight than carbon dioxide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide)

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Hibat
04-20-2010, 03:33 PM
Essential medicines - Drugs





Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population




Criteria for Selection of Essential Medicines



Essential medicines are selected with due regard to disease prevalence, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost-effectiveness



Essential Medicines Lists




Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality, and at a price the individual and the community can afford.


The Model List is a guide for the development of national and institutional essential medicine lists. It was not designed as a global standard. However, for the past 30 years the Model List has led to a global acceptance of the concept of essential medicines as a powerful means to promote health equity. Most countries have national lists and some have provincial or state lists as well. National lists of essential medicines usually relate closely to national guidelines for clinical health care practice which are used for the training and supervision of health workers.











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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-23-2010, 12:13 PM
Spinal cord





http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Spinal_cord_direv.svg/200px-Spinal_cord_direv.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinal_cord_direv.svg)
The spinal cord nested in the vertebral column (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spine_(anatomy))


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Spinalcord_trirev.svg/200px-Spinalcord_trirev.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinalcord_trirev.svg)A closer look at the spinal cord


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Medulla_spinalis_-_Section_-_English.svg/200px-Medulla_spinalis_-_Section_-_English.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Medulla_spinalis_-_Section_-_English.svg)Cross-section through cervical spinal cord


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spinalcord_trirev_rexedlamina.svg)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alarplate.svg)
Spinal cord development of the alar and basal plates


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Medulla_spinalis_-_tracts_-_English.svg)



The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron) and support cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia) that extends from the brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain) (the medulla (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medulla_oblongata) specifically). The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system). The spinal cord extends down to the space between the first and second lumbar vertebrae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumbar_vertebrae); it does not extend the entire length of the vertebral column. It is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and around 43 cm (17 in) long in women. The enclosing bony vertebral column (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spine_(anatomy)) protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmission) between the brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain) and the rest of the body but also contains neural circuits that can independently control numerous reflexes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflex) and central pattern generators (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_pattern_generator). The spinal cord has three major functions: A. Serve as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord. B. Serve as a conduit for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord. C. Serve as a center for coordinating certain reflexes
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ابتهاج مهدي
04-24-2010, 11:40 PM
Daily intake:
Estimate of the amount of a substance in food or drinking water, expressed on a body mass basis (usually mg/kg body weight), which can be ingested daily over a lifetime by humans without appreciable health risk. For calculation of the daily intake per person, a standard body mass of 60 kg is used. The acceptable daily intake is normally used for food additives (tolerable daily intake is used for contaminants).
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ابتهاج مهدي
04-25-2010, 11:11 AM
The LD50
The LD50 is a standardized measure for expressing and comparing the toxicity of chemicals.

The LD50 is the dose that kills half (50%) of the animals tested (LD = "lethal dose"). The animals are usually rats or mice, although rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, and so on are sometimes used.

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-27-2010, 05:24 PM
Dioxin
Dioxin and furans are some of the most toxic chemicals known to science. A draft report released for public comment in September 1994 by the US Environmental Protection Agency clearly describes dioxin as a serious public health threat. The public health impact of dioxin may rival the impact that DDT had on public health in the 1960's. According to the EPA report, not only does there appear to be no "safe" level of exposure to dioxin, but levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals have been found in the general US population that are "at or near levels associated with adverse health effects."
Dioxin is a general term that describes a group of hundreds of chemicals that are highly persistent in the environment. The most toxic compound is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD. The toxicity of other dioxins and chemicals like PCBs that act like dioxin are measured in relation to TCDD. Dioxin is formed as an unintentional by-product of many industrial processes involving chlorine such as waste incineration (http://archive.greenpeace.org/toxics/reports/chlorineindioxinout.pdf), chemical and pesticide manufacturing and pulp and paper bleaching. Dioxin was the primary toxic component of Agent Orange, was found at Love Canal in Niagara Falls, NY and was the basis for evacuations at Times Beach, MO and Seveso, Italy. Dioxin is formed by burning chlorine-based chemical compounds with hydrocarbons. The major source of dioxin in the environment comes from waste-burning incinerators of various sorts and also from backyard burn-barrels (http://www.burnbarrel.org/). Dioxin pollution is also affiliated with paper mills which use chlorine bleaching in their process and with the production of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastics (http://www.ejnet.org/plastics/pvc/) and with the production of certain chlorinated chemicals (like many pesticides (http://www.ejnet.org/toxics/#pesticides)).

In addition to cancer, exposure to dioxin can also cause severe reproductive and developmental problems (at levels 100 times lower than those associated with its cancer causing effects). Dioxin is well-known for its ability to damage the immune system and interfere with hormonal systems. Dioxin exposure has been linked to birth defects, inability to maintain pregnancy, decreased fertility, reduced sperm counts, endometriosis, diabetes, learning disabilities, immune system suppression, lung problems, skin disorders, lowered testosterone levels and much more. For an detailed list of health problems related to dioxin, read the People's Report on Dioxin (http://www.besafenet.com/report.html)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
04-29-2010, 04:57 PM
Nicotine
is an alkaloid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaloid) found in the nightshade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nightshade) family of plants (Solanaceae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanaceae)) that constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of dry weight of tobacco (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco),[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine#cite_note-acs-0)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine#cite_note-1) with biosynthesis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biosynthesis) taking place in the roots and accumulation occurring in the leaves. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_defense_against_herbivory) with particular specificity to insects; therefore nicotine was widely used as an insecticide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecticide) in the past,[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine#cite_note-2)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine#cite_note-3) and currently nicotine analogs such as imidacloprid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imidacloprid) continue to be widely used.
In low concentrations (an average cigarette (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cigarette) yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stimulant) in mammals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal) and is the main factor responsible for the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco_smoking). According to the American Heart Association (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Heart_Association), the "nicotine addiction (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addiction) has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break." The pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine tobacco addiction are similar to those that determine addiction to drugs such as heroin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin) and cocaine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine).[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine#cite_note-4) Nicotine content in cigarettes has slowly increased over the years, and one study found that there was an average increase of 1.6% per year between the years of 1998 and 2005. This was found for all major market categories of cigarettes.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-02-2010, 05:13 PM
Endemic Disease
In epidemiology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiology), an infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection) is said to be endemic (from Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language) en- in or within + demos people) in a population (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population) when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. For example, chickenpox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickenpox) is endemic (steady state) in the UK (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK), but malaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria) is not. Every year, there are a few cases of malaria acquired in the UK, but these do not lead to sustained transmission in the population due to the lack of a suitable vector (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_(epidemiology)) (mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles)).
For an infection that relies on person-to-person transmission to be endemic, each person who becomes infected with the disease must pass it on to one other person on average. Assuming a completely susceptible population, that means that the basic reproduction number (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_reproduction_number) (R0) of the infection must equal 1. In a population with some immune (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system) individuals, the basic reproduction number multiplied by the proportion of susceptible (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susceptible) individuals in the population (S) must be 1. This takes account of the probability (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability) of each individual to whom the disease may be transmitted (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(medicine)) actually being susceptible to it, effectively discounting the immune sector of the population.
For the disease to be in an endemic steady state:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/5/2/b/52b0a90cae63ae4f35a050f881bd6af3.png (http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/5/2/b/52b0a90cae63ae4f35a050f881bd6af3.png) In this way, the infection neither dies out nor does the number of infected people increase exponentially (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponentially) but the infection is said to be in an endemic steady state. An infection that starts as an epidemic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemic) will eventually either die out (with the possibility of it resurging in a theoretically predictable cyclical manner) or reach the endemic steady state, depending on a number of factors, including the virulence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Force_of_infection) of the disease and its mode of transmission (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(medicine)).
If a disease is in endemic steady state in a population, the relation above allows us to estimate the R0 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_reproduction_number) (an important parameter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parameter)) of a particular infection. This in turn can be fed into the mathematical model (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_modelling_in_epidemiology) of an epidemic.
While it might be common to say that AIDS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS) is "endemic" in Africa, this is a use of the word in its colloquial form (meaning found in an area). AIDS cases in Africa are still increasing, so the disease is not in an endemic steady state. It is correct to call the spread of AIDS in Africa an epidemic.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-03-2010, 06:22 PM
Exocrine glands
are glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gland) that secrete their products (excluding hormones and other chemical messengers) into ducts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duct_(anatomy)) (duct glands) which lead directly into the external environment. They are the counterparts to endocrine glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_glands), which secrete their products (hormones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone)) directly into the bloodstream (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood) (ductless glands) or release
hormones (paracrines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracrine)) that affect only target cells nearby the release site
Typical exocrine glands include sweat glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweat_gland), salivary glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salivary_gland), mammary glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammary_gland), stomach (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stomach), liver (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver), pancreas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas). (Example of an endocrine gland is the adrenal gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_gland), which is found on top of the kidneys and secretes the hormone adrenaline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenaline), among others).
Exocrine glands contain a glandular portion and a duct portion, the structures of which can be used to classify the gland.

The duct portion may be branched (called compound) or unbranched (called simple).
The glandular portion may be tubular, acinar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acinus), or may be a mix of the two (called tubuloacinar). If the glandular portion branches, then the gland is called a branched gland
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-04-2010, 11:25 PM
Down syndrome
, or Down's syndrome (primarily in the United Kingdom (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom)),[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndrome#cite_note-0)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndrome#cite_note-1) trisomy 21, or trisomy G, is a chromosomal disorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosomal_disorder) caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_21_(human)). It is named after John Langdon Down (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Langdon_Down), the British (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom) physician (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physician) who described the syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndrome) in 1866. The disorder was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Jérôme Lejeune (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%A9r%C3%B4me_Lejeune) in 1959. The condition is characterized by a combination of major and minor differences in structure. Often Down syndrome is associated with some impairment of cognitive (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognition) ability and physical growth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development), and a particular set of facial characteristics. Down syndrome in a fetus can be identified with amniocentesis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amniocentesis) during pregnancy, or in a baby at birth.
Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a lower than average cognitive ability, often ranging from mild to moderate developmental disabilities (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developmental_disability). A small number have severe to profound mental disability. The incidence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incidence_(epidemiology)) of Down syndrome is estimated at 1 per 800 to 1,000 births, although it is statistically much more common with older mothers. Other factors may also play a role.
Many of the common physical features of Down syndrome may also appear in people with a standard set of chromosomes, including microgenia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microgenia) (an abnormally small chin)[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndrome#cite_note-weiss-2), an unusually round face, macroglossia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macroglossia)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndrome#cite_note-belfer-3) (protruding or oversized tongue), an almond shape to the eyes caused by an epicanthic fold (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicanthic_fold) of the eyelid, upslanting palpebral fissures (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palpebral_fissure) (the separation between the upper and lower eyelids), shorter limbs, a single transverse palmar crease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_transverse_palmar_crease) (a single instead of a double crease across one or both palms, also called the Simian crease), poor muscle tone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypotonia), and a larger than normal space between the big and second toes. Health concerns for individuals with Down syndrome include a higher risk for congenital heart defects (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital_heart_defect), gastroesophageal reflux disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastroesophageal_reflux_disease), recurrent ear infections (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otitis), obstructive sleep apnea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obstructive_sleep_apnea), and thyroid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid) dysfunctions.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Drill.jpg/230px-Drill.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drill.jpg)
Early childhood intervention (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_childhood_intervention), screening for common problems, medical treatment where indicated, a conducive family environment, and vocational training can improve the overall development of children with Down syndrome. Although some of the physical genetic limitations of Down syndrome cannot be overcome, education and proper care will improve quality of life (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_of_life)
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-06-2010, 11:08 AM
Elephantiasis
is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. In some cases the disease can cause certain body parts, such as the scrotum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrotum), to swell to the size of a softball (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softball) or basketball (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basketball_(ball)).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantiasis#cite_note-NYT-0) "Elephantitis" is a common mis-hearing or mis-remembering of the term, from confusing the ending -iasis (process or resulting condition) with the more commonly heard -itis (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/-itis) (irritation or inflammation). The proper medical term is Elephantiasis,[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantiasis#cite_note-1) and it is caused by lymphatic filariasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphatic_filariasis) or podoconiosi
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Elephantiasis.jpg/220px-Elephantiasis.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elephantiasis.jpg)

Elephantiasis occurs in the presence of microscopic, thread-like parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuchereria_bancrofti), Brugia malayi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brugia_malayi), and B. timori (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brugia_timori), all of which are transmitted by mosquitoes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito).[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantiasis#cite_note-CDC-3) However, the disease itself is a result of a complex interplay between several factors: the worm, the symbiotic Wolbachia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolbachia) bacteria within the worm, the host’s immune response, and the numerous opportunistic infections and disorders that arise. Consequently, it is common in tropical regions and Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa). The adult worms only live in the human lymphatic system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphatic_system).[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantiasis#cite_note-4) Obstruction of the lymphatic vessels leads to swelling in the lower torso, typically in the legs and genitals. It is not definitively known if this swelling is caused by the parasite itself, or by the immune system's response to the parasite.
http://img188.imageshack.us/img188/3875/220pxelephanti.jpg (http://img188.imageshack.us/i/220pxelephanti.jpg/)
Uploaded with ImageShack.us (http://imageshack.us)
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-07-2010, 09:47 PM
Sinusitis
is a condition consisting of inflammation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation) of the paranasal sinuses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranasal_sinus), which may or may not be as a result of infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection), from bacterial (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria), fungal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus), viral (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus), allergic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergy) or autoimmune (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmunity) issues. Newer classifications of sinusitis refer to it as rhinosinusitis, taking into account the thought that inflammation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation) of the sinuses cannot occur without some inflammation of the nose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nose) as well
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Maxilar_sinusites.jpg/230px-Maxilar_sinusites.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maxilar_sinusites.jpg)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-08-2010, 11:59 PM
Specific social phobia


Mental health (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_health) professionals often distinguish between generalized social phobia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_anxiety_disorder) and specific social phobia.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_social_phobia#cite_note-crozier-0) People with generalized social phobia have great distress in a wide range of social situations. Those with specific social phobia may experience anxiety only in a few situations.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_social_phobia#cite_note-crozier-0) The term "specific social phobia" may also refer to specific forms of non-clinical social anxiety (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_anxiety).
The most common symptoms of specific social phobia are glossophobia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossophobia), the fear of public speaking and the fear of performance, known as stage fright (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_fright). Other examples of specific social phobia include fears of writing or eating in public, using public restrooms (paruresis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paruresis)), attending social gatherings, and dealing with authorities.
Specific social phobia may be classified into performance fears and interaction fears, i.e., fears of acting in social setting and interacting with other people, respectively.
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Specific_social_phobia&action=edit&section=1)] Prevalence and distribution

In the past, when the prevalence was estimated by sampling the psychiatric (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychiatric) clinical cases (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clinical_case&action=edit&redlink=1), social phobia was thought to be a rare disorder. It is now recognized that this way of estimating is inappropriate, because people with social phobia rarely seek psychiatric help by the very nature of their disorder. A more reliable source used now is community surveys (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_survey).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_social_phobia#cite_note-1)
Various surveys show that the syndrome of glossophobia is the most prevalent type. An article based on a National Comorbidity Survey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Comorbidity_Survey) reported that 1/3 people with lifetime social phobia suffered from glossophobia[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_social_phobia#cite_note-2) Another survey of a community sample from a Canadian city reported that of people who believed being anxious in one or several social situations 55% feared speaking to a large audience, 25% feared speaking to a small group of familiar people, 23% feared dealing with authority, 14.5% feared social gatherings, 14% feared speaking to strangers, 7% feared eating and 5% feared writing in public
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-11-2010, 05:25 PM
ABATE (larvicide
. ABATE is a potent larvicide (temephos) that effectively manages a broad spectrum of nuisance and disease-causing insects, such as mosquitoes, before they hatch.
Why Use ABATE?
BASF ABATE is the original and most trusted larvicide brand.
How Does It Work?
When applied to standing water where mosquitoes and other insects breed, ABATE kills the larvae before they develop into mature insects. In effect, it short-circuits the cycle that disseminates the pathogen to humans.
Community Safety Is Top Priority
When fighting vector-borne disease, it is imperative that the insect-control products do not pose unnecessary risk to the population they are working to protect. That’s why ABATE offers added peace of mind. ABATE is highly effective at low use-rates. When used according to label directions, ABATE poses low risk to humans, fish, birds and other non-target organisms.
ABATE Works Fast and Lasts Long
ABATE can quickly control mosquito and other insect populations because it kills insect larvae before they mature. Then, the residual activity of ABATE continues to prevent insect populations from returning for weeks. In addition, because ABATE is a different chemistry from pyrethroid sprays that target only mature insects, it works to greatly reduce the chances of resistance that can compromise the overall insect-control efforts.
http://www.basfpublichealth.com/products/products_graphics/photo_abate.jpg

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-13-2010, 11:50 AM
Echinococcus granulosus

Dog Tape Worm



Echinococcus granulosushttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Echinococcus_granulosus_scolex.jpg/220px-Echinococcus_granulosus_scolex.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Echinococcus_granulosus_scolex.jpg)E. granulosus scolex




Echinococcus granulosus, also called the Hydatid worm or Hyper Tape-worm is a cyclophyllid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclophyllid)cestode (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cestode) that parasitizes the small intestine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_intestine) of canids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canids) as an adult, but which has important intermediate hosts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediate_host) such as livestock (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock) and humans, where it causes hydatid disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydatid_disease). The adult tapeworm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapeworm) ranges in length from 2 mm to 7 mm and has three proglottids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proglottid) ("segments") when intact - an immature proglottid, mature proglottid and a gravid proglottid. Like all cyclophyllideans, E. granulosus has four suckers on its scolex (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scolex) ("head"), and E. granulosus also has a rostellum with hooks.
In canids, E. granulosus causes a typical tapeworm infection, and produces eggs that are passed with the dog's feces (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feces). Intermediate hosts include herbivores such as sheep (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheep), deer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deer), moose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moose), kangaroos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangaroo), and wallabies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallaby), and any other organism (including humans) that ingests dog feces. In the intermediate host, eggs hatch into oncosphere larvae that travel through the blood (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood) and form hydatid cysts in the host's tissues (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_tissue). These cysts can grow to be the size of a softball (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softball) or basketball (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basketball), and may contain several smaller "balloons" inside the main cyst. In the related worm Echinococcus multilocularis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinococcus_multilocularis), the outer cyst is not present. If the outer cyst ruptures, new cysts can form at a different location in the body. Each smaller section contains several juvenile worms, and dogs may eat millions of them, resulting in very heavy infections. Hydatid cysts occur in organs like the liver (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver), brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain) and lungs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung), not in subcutaneous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcutaneous) tissue. Though this has never been tested experimentally, it is assumed that infected animals make easier prey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prey) for canids.
Symptoms can include liver enlargement, hooklets in sputum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputum) and possible anaphylactic shock (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphylactic_shock) when the immune system reacts to ruptured cysts. A cyst diagnosis with ultrasound (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrasound), MRI (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRI), or immunoelectrophoresis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoelectrophoresis).

E. granulosus life cycle
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Echinococcus_Life_Cycle.png/250px-Echinococcus_Life_Cycle.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Echinococcus_Life_Cycle.png)

Hydatid disease is treated with surgery, taking special care to leave the cyst intact so new cysts do not form, and mebendazole (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mebendazole) over a long period of time at low dosages.
The best way to keep dogs from being infected is to prevent them from eating infected offal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Offal). The best way to avoid human infection is to avoid ingesting food or other substances contaminated with dog feces.
Diagnosis in the definitive host, the dog, is difficult by ordinary microscopy as it cannot differentiate between Taenia and Echinococcus eggs. Detection of antigens in feces by ELISA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELISA) is currently the best available technique. The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus was found to be 4.5% in Bangalore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangalore), India by a study conducted by Centre of Advanced Studies in Veterinary Parasitology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore employing this coproantigen detection technique. Newer techniques like PCR (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction) is also used to identify the parasite from DNA isolated from eggs or feces.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-15-2010, 01:15 PM
Synovial fluid
is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-Newtonian_fluid) found in the cavities of synovial joints (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synovial_joint). With its yolk-like consistency ("synovial" partially derives from ovum, Latin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language) for egg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_(biology))), the principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articular_cartilage) of synovial joints during movement

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Joint.png/400px-Joint.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Joint.png)

The inner membrane of synovial joints is called the synovial membrane (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synovial_membrane) and secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity. This fluid forms a thin layer (roughly 50 μm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micrometre)) at the surface of cartilage and also seeps into microcavities and irregularities in the articular cartilage surface, filling all empty space.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synovial_fluid#cite_note-0) The fluid in articular (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articular) cartilage effectively serves as a synovial fluid reserve. During movement, the synovial fluid held in the cartilage is squeezed out mechanically to maintain a layer of fluid on the cartilage surface (so-called weeping lubrication).

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-16-2010, 05:46 PM
Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA
(DNA) is a nucleic acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid) that contains the genetic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics) instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism) and some viruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus). The main role of DNA molecules (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecule) is the long-term storage of information (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information). DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blueprint) or a recipe, or a code (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code), since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)), such as proteins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein) and RNA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA) molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene), but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.
Chemically, DNA consists of two long polymers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymers) of simple units called nucleotides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotide), with backbones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backbone_chain) made of sugars (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monosaccharide) and phosphate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphate) groups joined by ester (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ester) bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiparallel_(biochemistry)). Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleobase). It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_code), which specifies the sequence of the amino acids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid) within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA, in a process called transcription (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_(genetics)).
Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome). These chromosomes are duplicated before cells divide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_division), in a process called DNA replication (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_replication). Eukaryotic organisms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryote) (animals (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal), plants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant), fungi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus), and protists (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protist)) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nucleus) and some of their DNA in organelles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organelle), such as mitochondria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondria) or chloroplasts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloroplasts).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA#cite_note-0) In contrast, prokaryotes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryote) (bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria) and archaea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaea)) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoplasm). Within the chromosomes, chromatin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatin) proteins such as histones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histone) compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/ADN_animation.gif (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ADN_animation.gif)

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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-17-2010, 11:38 PM
An anaerobic organism
anaerobe is any organism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism) that does not require oxygen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen) for growth, could possibly react negatively and may even die in its presence. There are three types: obligate anaerobes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obligate_anaerobe), which cannot use oxygen for growth and are even harmed by it; aerotolerant organisms, which cannot use oxygen for growth, but tolerate the presence of it; and facultative anaerobes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facultative_anaerobic_organism), which can grow without oxygen but can utilize oxygen if it is present.
Obligate anaerobes may use fermentation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation_(biochemistry)) or anaerobic respiration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_respiration).
Aerotolerant organisms are strictly fermentative.
In the presence of oxygen, facultative anaerobes use aerobic respiration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerobic_respiration); without oxygen some of them ferment, some use anaerobic respiration.
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-19-2010, 01:04 PM
:bounce[1]::bounce[1]:The medulla oblongata
is the lower half of the brainstem (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstem). In discussions of neurology and similar contexts where no ambiguity will result, it is often referred to as simply the medulla. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_center), vomiting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_postrema) and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomic_nervous_system) functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure

The medulla is often thought of as being in two parts:

an open part or superior part where the dorsal surface of the medulla is formed by the fourth ventricle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_ventricle).
a closed part or inferior part where the metacoel (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Metacoel&action=edit&redlink=1) lies within the medulla
. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Illu_pituitary_pineal_glands.jpg (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Illu_pituitary_pineal_glands.jpg)A

عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-20-2010, 04:58 PM
Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eating_disorders) characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_weight), and an obsessive fear of gaining weight due to a distorted self image (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image)[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa#cite_note-0)[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa#cite_note-1) which may be maintained by various cognitive biases (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias) that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about their body, food and eating. AN is a serious mental illness with morbidity and mortality rates as high as those seen in any psychiatric illness.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa#cite_note-2)
While the stereotype (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotype) is that AN affects young white women (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_people), it can affect men and women of all ages, races (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_(classification_of_human_beings)), socioeconomic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socioeconomics) and cultural (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture) backgrounds.The term anorexia nervosa was established in 1873 by Sir William Gull (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_William_Gull,_1st_Baronet), one of Queen Victoria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Victoria)'s personal physicians. thus meaning a lack of desire to eat
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-21-2010, 06:02 PM
An aerobic organism
or aerobe is an organism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism) that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment

Types

Obligate aerobes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obligate_aerobe) require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration. In a process known as cellular respiration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respiration), these organisms use oxygen to oxidize (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation) substrates (for example sugars (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar) and fats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat)) in order to obtain energy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy).
Facultative anaerobes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facultative_anaerobic_organism) can use oxygen, but also have anaerobic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_organism) methods of energy production.
Microaerophiles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microaerophile) are organisms that may use oxygen, but only at low concentrations.
Aerotolerant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerotolerant) organisms can survive in the presence of oxygen, but they are anaerobic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_organism) because they do not use it as a terminal electron acceptor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_electron_acceptor).
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عبدالرحيم احمد عبدالرحيم
05-23-2010, 03:51 PM
mucous membranes
(or mucosae; singular mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germ_layer) origin, covered in epithelium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithelium), which are involved in absorption (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_(digestive)) and secretion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secretion). They line various body cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_(anatomy)). They are at several places continuous with skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin): at the nostrils (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nostril), the mouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouth), the lips (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lip), the eyelids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyelids), the ears (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear), the genital area (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_organ), and the anus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anus). The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and glands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glands) is termed mucus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucus). The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body) and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus.
Body cavities featuring mucous membrane include most of the respiratory system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_system). The glans penis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glans_penis) (head of the penis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penis)) and glans clitoridis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glans_clitoridis), along with the inside of the prepuce (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prepuce) (foreskin) and the clitoral hood (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitoral_hood), are mucous membranes. The urethra is also a mucous membrane. The secreted mucus traps the pathogens in the body, preventing any further activities of diseases
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منهل الجدع
05-24-2010, 05:30 PM
aqua privy
system of on site excreta disposal